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Recent (2013–14) and Forthcoming Journal Articles

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G Lamond, 'Analogical Reasoning in the Common Law' (2014) 34 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (forthcoming) [...]

DOI: 10.1093/ojls/gqu014

Analogical reasoning is a pervasive feature of the common law, yet its structure and rational force is much disputed by legal theorists, some of whom are sceptical that it has any rational force at all. This paper argues that part of the explanation for these disagreements lies in there being not one form of analogical reasoning in the common law, but three: classificatory analogies, close analogies, and distant analogies. These three differ in their functions and rationale. Classificatory analogies involve the use of decided cases to help characterize novel fact situations, and are justified by the rule of law ideal of minimizing the dependence of judicial decisions on the individual views of decision-makers. Close analogies are used to help resolve unsettled issues by reliance on decisions from other branches of the same legal doctrine. They complement the doctrine of precedent, and rest on similar considerations. Distant analogies are also used to help resolve unsettled issues, but by reference to decisions from other legal doctrines. They are the most susceptible to sceptical critique: although they can serve to maintain coherence in the law, they deserve a more modest role in legal reasoning than they are often given.

ISBN: 1464-3820

TAO Endicott, 'Arbitrariness' (2014) Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence [...]

In order to identify the form of arbitrariness that is relevant to the rule of law, I discuss a Supreme Court of India decision and a Supreme Court of Canada decision in which judges held that other public authorities had acted arbitrarily. I also discuss Jeremy Bentham’s work on the rule of law, and his notion that the interpretive power of judges is itself an arbitrary power. I argue that the interpretive role of judges is not necessarily hostile to the rule of law, but that there is a standing tension between the two. In the decisions under discussion, the Canadian and Indian judges used their doctrines of arbitrariness to reallocate power to themselves, without any resulting enhancement in the rule of law.

ISBN: 0841-8209

I Loader and R Sparks, 'Beyond Mass Incarceration?' (2014) 23 The Good Society 114

WG Ringe, 'Changing Law and Ownership Patterns in Germany: Corporate Governance and the Erosion of Deutschland AG' (2014) Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper No. XX/2014 [...]

German corporate governance and corporate law are currently undergoing a major change. The old “Deutschland AG”, a nationwide network of firms, banks, and directors, is eroding, ownership is diffusing and the shareholder body is becoming more international than ever. This paper presents new data to support this development and explores the consequences in governance and in law that have been taken or that need to be drawn from this finding. Consistent with market-based theoretical accounts on corporate law, it finds that the changes currently underway are mainly a response to global market pressure: German banks divested their equity stakes mainly as a consequence of increased international competition. The paper extends the model of market-led change by two important observations: first, market pressure is not the only driver of legal change, but the law itself in this case contributed to facilitating competition. Notably, a taxation law reform enabled and accelerated the competition process already underway. Legal rules and market competition may thus be understood as not operating in isolation, but as forces that can be working in dialog. Secondly, the paper highlights the importance of ownership structure as an important intermediate condition in the logical order between market competition and legal change.

E Fisher, 'Chemicials as Regulatory Objects' (2014) 23 Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law in press

P P Craig, 'Constitutionalizing Constitutional Law: HS2' (2014) Public Law 373

M Köpcke Tinturé, 'Criminalizing psychological forms and causes of harm' (2014) (forthcoming)

J Payne, 'Debt Restructuring in English Law: Lessons from the US and the need for reform' (2014) LQR 282 [...]

This paper assesses the debt restructuring mechanisms available to companies in English law, compares these mechanisms with the Chapter 11 procedure in the US, and makes some suggestions for reform of the English system in this context. Rehabilitating a company in financial difficulties will almost always be preferable to liquidation for companies and their creditors, at least where the company is merely financially distressed, i.e. it is cash flow insolvent but nevertheless economically viable, so that there is a business worth saving. Five debt restructuring mechanisms are available to companies in English law: workouts, Company Voluntary Arrangements (CVAs), schemes of arrangement, administration and, lastly, a recent innovation of practitioners has been to twin a scheme of arrangement with administration. None of these devices are ideal as debt restructuring tools, as explained in this paper. Lessons can be learned from the US Chapter 11 process, although a simple transplantation of this procedure into English law is not recommended, as there are also disadvantages to the US procedure. Instead it is suggested that the English scheme of arrangement be reformed to allow a cramdown of whole classes to take place, to attach a moratorium to this procedure and to enhance the valuation process where restructuring takes place. Making these changes would provide English law with a stronger and more effective debt restructuring procedure.

ISBN: 0023-933X

J Dickson, 'Estado del arte de la filosofía del derecho' (2014) 36 Doxa: Cuadernos de Filosofía del Derecho (forthcoming)

C Hoyle and N Palmer, 'Family justice centres: A model for empowerment?' (2014) 20 International Review of Victimology 1 [...]

The London Borough of Croydon, in the south of England, established, in December 2005, a Family Justice Centre (FJC) to respond in a flexible way to meet the varied needs of those abused in intimate relationships. The FJC brings together some 33 agencies under one roof. This article draws on a small, grounded pilot study of the Croydon FJC – the first study of a FJC in the UK  to consider if the co-location and cooperation of services to victims of domestic abuse has the potential to empower victims to make informed choices about their futures.

ISBN: 0269-7580

J M Eekelaar, 'Family Justice on Trial - re A' (2014) 44 Family Law [...]

The article analyses the decision of the Court of Appeal which describes the process of a contact case as one of system failure, and suggests an alternative reading of the reported facts.

V Mayer-Schönberger and Lena Wong, 'Fan or Foe? Fan Fiction, Authorship, and the Fight for Control' (2014) 54 IDEA: The IP Law Review 1

N Gur, 'Form and Value in Law' (2014) 5(1) Jurisprudence 85 [...]

A contribution to a symposium on Kristen Rundle’s book Forms Liberate.

I Loader, 'In Search of Civic Policing: Recasting the 'Peelian' Principles' (2014) 8 Criminal Law and Philosophy [...]

For over a century the so-called ‘Peelian’ principles have been central to the self-understanding of Anglo-American policing. But these principles are the product of modern state-building and speak only partially to the challenges of urban policing today. In fact, they stand in the way of clear thinking and better practice. In this paper, I argue that these principles ought to be radically recast and put to work in new ways. The argument proceeds as follows. First, I recover and outline the current ‘Peelian’ principles and argue that they lack the specificity, sufficiency and status required in order to do real work in the governance of policing. Secondly, I make the case for principles both as a regulative ideal guiding our aspirations for what policing can become and as a means of regulating police work in the here-and-now. I then develop a revised set of principles and indicate, in conclusion, how they can guide the formation of trust-producing and democracy-enhancing practices of civic policing.

M Bosworth and G Slade, 'In Search of Recognition: Gender and Staff-Detainee Relations in a British Immigration Removal Centre' (2014) 16 Punishment & Society (forthcoming)

J Rowbottom, 'In the Shadow of Big Media: Freedom of Expression, Participation and the Production of Knowledge Online ' [2014] Public Law (forthcoming)

J J W Herring and P-L Chau, 'Interconnected, inhabited and insecure: why bodies should not be property' (2014) 40 Journal of Medical Ethics 39

J Vidmar, 'International Community and Abuses of Sovereign Powers' (2014) 35 Liverpool Law Review 1

TAO Endicott, 'Interpretation and Indeterminacy' (2014) Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies, forthcoming

R Ekins, 'Interpretive Choice in Statutory Interpretation' (2014) 59 American Journal of Jurisprudence (forthcoming)

D Sarooshi, 'Investment treaty arbitration and the World Trade Organization: what role for systemic values in the resolution of international disputes?' (2014) 49(3) Texas International Law Journal 445

J Vidmar, 'Judicial Interpretations of Democracy in Human Rights Treaties' (2014) Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law (forthcoming)

K. Steininger and others, 'Justice and cost effectiveness of consumption-based versus production-based approaches in the case of unilateral climate policies' (2014) 24 Global Environmental Change 75 [...]

In recent years, climate policy under the United Nations system has been characterized by bottom-up, national approaches to climate mitigation. This raises concerns about the overall effectiveness of these mitigation policies, for example due to carbon leakage. In response to these concerns, authors have repeatedly suggested that policy makers consider a consumption-based climate policy approach. We analyze the potential merits of a switch to a consumption-based policy approach using the criteria of justice and economic efficiency. We argue that emissions must be understood as being contributed by both, consumers and producers, but that this fact does not by itself settle the question whether consumption or production ought to serve as the climate policy base. Rather, the perspective of justice necessitates an analysis of the distributive consequences of switching from a production- to a consumption-based policy. We find that both (global) cost-effectiveness and justice can be improved if the unilateral climate policies of industrialized countries are based on emissions from consumption. There are preconditions, however, the switch in the policy base must be accompanied by clean technology transfer, and if implemented by border carbon adjustments, import tax revenues need to be channeled to developing and emerging economies. We further show that in such a setting, export rebates are of minor importance for efficiency and justice.

G Lamond, 'Legal Sources, the Rule of Recognition, and Customary Law' (2014) 59 American Journal of Jurisprudence 25 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/ajj/auu005

A perennial puzzle about source-based law such as precedent is what makes sources legally binding. One of the most influential answers to this puzzle is provided by Hart’s rule of recognition. According to Hart, the sources of law are accepted as binding by the officials of a legal system, and this collective social practice of officials provides the foundations for a legal system. According to Hart, the rule of recognition differs fundamentally from other legal rules in three ways: (1) the grounds on which it is accepted; (2) the basis for its system-membership; and (3) its mode of existence. This paper argues that (1) is mistaken, and that (2) and (3) do not in fact make the rule of recognition fundamentally different to other legal rules in the way that Hart supposed. Instead, the rule of recognition is a form of customary law in foro whose existence is practice-dependent, but which is nonetheless legally binding and legally valid as other laws are. The foundations of a legal system do not lie in the acceptance of the ultimate sources of law, but in the acceptance of the system as a whole.

ISBN: 2049-6494

G Lamond, 'Legal Systems and the Rule of Recognition' (2014) Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies (forthcoming)

P Eleftheriadis, 'Legality and Reciprocity: A Discussion of Lon Fuller’s The Morality of Law' (2014) 9 Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies 1

J J W Herring, 'Life after death' (2014) New Law Journal 10 [...]

A discussion of posthumous parenting

M Köpcke Tinturé, 'Methodology in Marmor's "Philosophy of Law"' (2014) Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies (forthcoming)

I Goold and H Maslen, 'Must the Surgeon Take the Pill? Negligence Duty in the Context of Cognitive Enhancement' (2014) 77 Modern Law Review 60

A Tzanakopoulos, 'National Treatment and MFN in the (Invisible) EU Model BIT' (2014) 15 Journal of World Investment & Trade 484 [...]

DOI: 10.1163/22129000-01504007

This article discusses the potential provisions on national treatment and MFN to be included in a future EU Model BIT against the background of the leaked draft text of the Canada-EU Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) investment chapter. It concludes that the EU treaty practice seems to be closer to investment protection models influenced by NAFTA, such as those prevalent in the Canada and US Model BITs, and that a future EU Model BIT along these lines will depart significantly from the investment treaty practice of EU Member States.

ISBN: 1660-7112

C Hoyle and Leila Ullrich, 'New Court, New Justice? The Evolution of ‘Justice for Victims’ at Domestic Courts and the International Criminal Court' (2014) Journal of International Criminal Justice [...]

The International Criminal Court (ICC) is the first international criminal justice institution that explicitly promises to deliver justice for victims by providing for the rights of victims to participation and reparation in criminal proceedings. More than a decade after its establishment, the time is right to consider how this new idea of justice for victims has developed at the ICC. While analysis of the ICC’s framework has benefited from international law and other academic disciplines, such as international relations and politics, there has been too little attention paid to international criminal justice by mainstream criminologists and victimologists. To fill this gap, this article will systematically reflect on the similarities and differences in the evolution of the idea of justice for victims at domestic criminal courts and the ICC from a criminological and victimological perspective. Overall, the comparison suggests that while the concept of justice for victims has been mainly understood in terms of the benefits and problems of incorporating victims’ rights into criminal law procedure in the domestic context, at the ICC, it has led to broader contestations and redefinitions of the very meaning of justice. These contestations on justice have to be understood in the institutional context of a still young and sui generis court that is unsure of the kind of justice it can and should deliver.

E Descheemaeker, 'New Directions in Unjustified Enrichment: Learning from South Africa?' (2014) 18 Edinburgh Law Review (forthcoming)

J M Eekelaar, 'Perceptions of Equality: the Road to Same-Sex Marriage in England' (2014) 28 International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family 1 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/lawfam/ebt013

The article examines the backgroubnd to the treatment of same-sex relationships in English law and the progression to the enactment of the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013, analysing the positions advanced by participants in the debate.

J Pila, 'Pluralism, Principles and Proportionality in Intellectual Property' (2014) Oxford Journal of Legal Studies

B Bradford, 'Policing and social identity: procedural justice, inclusion and cooperation between police and public' (2014) 24 Policing and Society 22 [...]

DOI: 10.1080/10439463.2012.724068

Accounts of the social meaning of policing and of the relationship between police and citizen converge on the idea that police behaviour carries important identity-relevant information. Opinions of and ideas about the police are implicated in the formation of social identities that relate to the social groups it represents – nation, state and community. Procedural justice theory suggests that judgements about the fairness of the police will be the most important factor in such processes. Fairness promotes a sense of inclusion and value, while unfairness communicates denigration and exclusion. Furthermore, positive social identities in relation to the police should on this account promote cooperation with it. This article presents an empirical test of these ideas in the context of the British policing. Data from a survey of young Londoners are used to show that perceptions of police fairness are indeed associated with social identity, and in turn social identity can be linked to cooperation. Yet these relationships were much stronger among those with multiple national identities. Police behaviour appeared more identity relevant for people who felt that they were citizens of a non-UK country, but for those who identified only as British there was a weaker link between procedural fairness and social identity, and here legitimacy judgements were the main ‘drivers’ of cooperation. Theoretical and policy implications are discussed.

B Bradford, K Murphy and J Jackson, 'Policing, Procedural Justice and the (Re)production of Social Identity' (2014) 54 British Journal of Criminology 527 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/bjc/azu021

Encounters with the criminal justice system shape people’s perceptions of the legitimacy of legal authorities, and the dominant explanatory framework for this relationship revolves around the idea that procedurally just practice increases people’s positive connections to justice institutions. But there have been few assessments of the idea – central to procedural justice theory – that social identity acts as an important social-psychological bridge in this process. Our contribution in this paper is to examine the empirical links between procedural justice, social identity and legitimacy in the context of policing in Australia. A representative two-wave panel survey of Australians suggests that social identity does mediate the association between procedural justice and perceptions of legitimacy. It seems that when people feel fairly treated by police, their sense of identification with the superordinate group the police represent is enhanced, strengthening police legitimacy as a result. By contrast, unfair treatment signals to people that they do not belong, undermining both identification and police legitimacy.

P P Craig, 'Pringle and the Nature of Legal Reasoning ' (2014) Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law 205

J Prassl, 'Reforming Air Passenger Rights in Europe' (2014) 38 Air & Space Law (forthcoming)

J Gordon and WG Ringe, 'Resolution in the European Banking Union: A Transatlantic Perspective on What it Would Take' (2014) Columbia Law and Economics Working Paper No. 465 [...]

The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure substitute for these two shortcomings that can minimize the systemic distress costs of the failure of a large financial institution. We borrow from the approach the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) has devised in the implementation of the “Orderly Liquidation Authority” under the Dodd Frank Act. The FDIC’s experience teaches us three important lessons: first, systemically important institutions need to have in their liability structure sufficient unsecured (or otherwise subordinated) term debt so that in the event of bank failure, the conversion of debt into equity will be sufficient to absorb asset losses without impairing deposits and other short term credit; second, the organizational structure of the financial institution needs to permit such a debt conversion without putting core financial constituents through a bankruptcy, and third, a federal funding mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach—and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective.

van Zwieten, 'Restructuring law: recommendations from the European Commission' (2014) Law in Transition (forthcoming)

J Vidmar, 'States, Governments, and Collective Recognition' (2014) Chinese (Taiwan) Yearbook of International Law and Affairs (forthcoming)

L Zedner, 'Terrorizing Criminal Law' (2014) 8 Criminal Law and Philosophy 99

J J W Herring, C. Foster and M. Boyd, 'Testing the limits of the 'joint account' model of genetic information: a legal thought experiment ' (2014) Journal of Medical Ethics

S J Douglas, 'The Argument for Property Rights in Body Parts: Scarcity of Resources' (2014) 40 Journal of Medical Ethics 23

I Goold, Loane Skene, Jonathan Herring and Kate Greasley, 'The Human Body as Property? Possession, Control and Commodification (The Concise Argument)' (2014) 40 Journal of Medical Ethics 1

I Loader, B Goold and A Thumala, 'The Moral Economy of Security' (2014) 18 Theoretical Criminology [...]

In this paper we draw upon our recent research into security consumption to answer two questions: First, under what conditions do people experience the buying and selling of security goods and services as morally troubling? Second, what are the theoretical implications of understanding private security as, in certain respects, tainted trade? We begin by drawing on two bodies of work on morality and markets (one found in political theory, the other in cultural sociology) in order to develop what we call a moral economy of security. We then use this theoretical resource to conduct an anatomy of the modes of ambivalence and unease that the trade in security generates. Three categories organize the analysis: blocked exchange, corrosive exchange, and intangible exchange. In conclusion, we briefly spell out the wider significance of our claim that the buying and selling of security is a morally charged and contested practice of governance.

R Ekins and J Goldsworthy, 'The Reality and Indispensability of Legislative Intentions' (2014) 36 Sydney Law Review (forthcoming)

C Hoyle, 'The Role of the Victim in Criminal Justice in England' [2014] 37 Criminal Law Review 490

J Vidmar, 'The Scottish Independence Referendum in an International Context' (2014) 51 Canadian Yearbook of International Law (forthcoming)

Dyson and Kramer, 'There is No Breach Date Rule: Mitigation, Difference in Value and Date of Assessment' (2014) Law Quarterly Review (forthcoming)

C Hoyle and Michelle Miao, 'Thinking Beyond Death Penalty Abolitionist Reform – Lessons from Abroad and the Options for China' (2014) 2 China Legal Science

G Dinwoodie, 'Third Annual Emmanuel College International Intellectual Property Lecture: Ensuring Consumers "Get What They Want": The Role of Trademark Law ' (2014) Cambridge Law Journal (forthcoming)

E Descheemaeker, 'Tort Law Defences: A Defence of Conventionalism' (2014) 77 Modern Law Review 493 [...]

This article is a critical review of an important recent book by James Goudkamp: Tort Law Defences (Oxford: Hart Publishing, 2013). In this work, the author seeks to reconceptualise defences – and while the ambit of the project is confined to the law of tort, it has implication for large swathes of private law. Goudkamp’s book makes a number of important points. Some, like the need to distinguish sharply between defences properly so called and denials, ought not to be controversial. Others will be. The present article focuses on two interrelated claims made by Goudkamp, which are foundational to the book yet ought not in my mind to be accepted. First comes the idea that a defence is defined as ‘a rule that relieves the defendant of liability even though all the elements of the tort in which the claimant sues are present’: in other words, for the author, the definition of a defence is substantive (a plea in confession and avoidance) not procedural (based on the empirical observation of who bears the onus of proving what). Second is the idea that defences are distinct from torts, rather than part of the definition of the causes of action, a view which can be described as ‘dualism’. Contra Goudkamp, the present article seeks to defend unitarianism and also – at least when it comes to what the author calls ‘justification defences’ – the view that defences do in fact prevent the tort from arising in the first place. Adopting a different perspective, the final section seeks to highlight the importance of Dr Goudkamp’s attempt to consider defences as a whole: the main reason – on which the author does not himself rely – is that, despite the above criticisms, it paves the way for a reclassification of defences which would be highly beneficial for the rationality and accountability of the law of torts.

I Loader, A Thumala and B Goold, 'Tracking Devices: On the Reception of a Novel Security Good' (2014) 14 Criminology & Criminal Justice [...]

In this paper, we describe and make sense of the reception of a novel security good: namely, the personal GPS tracking device. There is nothing new about tracking. Electronic monitoring is an established technology with many taken-for-granted uses. Against this backdrop, we focus on a particular juncture in the ‘social life’ of tracking, the moment at which personal trackers were novel goods in the early stages of being brought to market and promoted as protective devices. Using data generated in a wider study of security consumption, our concern is to understand how this extension of tracking technology into everyday routines and social relations was received by its intended consumers and users. How do potential buyers or users of these novel protective devices respond to this novel security object? What is seductive or repulsive about keeping track of those for whom one has a duty or relationship of care? How do new tracking technologies intersect with – challenge, reshape or get pushed back by – existing social practices and norms, most obviously around questions of risk, responsibility, trust, autonomy and privacy? This paper sets out to answer these questions and to consider what the reception of this novel commodity can tell us about the meaning and future of security.

Roser and L. Tomlinson, 'Trade Policies and Climate Change: Border Carbon Adjustments as a Tool for a Just Global Climate Regime' (2014) Ancilla Iuris (forthcoming) [...]

There is an urgent need to mitigate global greenhouse gas emissions. Because climate change is caused by actions regardless of where they take place on earth, it is generally considered that effective action must take place on a global scale. So far, multilateral attempts to coordinate action on a global level have failed to implement measures that are expected to prevent dangerous climate change, and unilat‐ eral measures are now being considered as an alternative way of achieving emissions reductions out‐ side of this context. In light of this, some advocate the use of Border Carbon Adjustments to address the various problems that arise when carbon mitigation policies are implemented on a unilateral basis. There are several arguments for or against the use of Border Carbon Adjustments, and most of these are addressed in the economic, legal, and policy literature. Little has been said on the implications of Border Carbon Adjustments for justice. The aim of this paper is to evaluate Border Carbon Adjust‐ ments as a policy tool for the mitigation of climate change. This paper argues that, whilst Border Car‐ bon Adjustments may be an effective way of achieving unilateral emission reductions, they face problems as far as global distributive justice is concerned and they can easily be perceived as an unac‐ ceptable shift towards a hostile and aggressive form of multilateral diplomacy. For this reason, Border Carbon Adjustments should be viewed with great caution and, if used at all, careful attention should be paid to designing their implementation in accordance with principles of justice.

B Bradford and Andy Myhill, 'Triggers of change to public confidence in the police and criminal justice system: Findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales panel experiment' (2014) Criminology and Criminal Justice (forthcoming) [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1748895814521825

Accounts of public ‘trust and confidence’ in criminal justice agencies often fall into one of two camps. Instrumental accounts suggest that people trust police and the criminal justice system (CJS) when they believe them to be effective in fighting crime and reducing offending. Expressive or affective accounts, by contrast, suggest people place as much or more emphasis on the social meaning of justice institutions as on their instrumental activities. In this article we add to recent studies that have sought to weigh up the balance between instrumental and expressive factors. Using data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales panel experiment, we present evidence that trust in police and the wider CJS is implicated in public concerns about the nature of local order and cohesion. The expressive account appears to offer a better understanding of why people may grant trust to, or withdraw trust from, the police and the CJS.

J J W Herring and Jesse Wall, 'Understanding capacity: 'the heart may easily overrule the head'' (2014) 4 Elder Law Journal 190

Laura Hoyano, 'What Is Balanced on the Scales of Justice? In Search of the Essence of the Right to a Fair Trial' [2014] Criminal Law Review (forthcoming) [...]

This article contests the notion, prevalent in British jurisprudence regarding ECHR Article 6, and recently adopted by the Grand Chamber in Al-Khawaja v UK, that the right to a fair trial involves the 'balancing' of the rights of the defendant against the rights of the prosecution, the complainant and other witnesses, and the community at large. It argues that the whole notion of balancing is fundamentally misconceived, setting up a conflictual trap whereby defence rights are always seen as being in antithesis to those of the prosecution representing the overarching public interest. Instead, I propose a model embodying a sense of objective fairness predicated upon the right to a verdict with integrity; as such this right is not allocated to any one participant in the trial but is a common good, erasing any perceived antitheses within Article 6. The article goes on to explore the concept of "the essence of the right" in Article 6(3) caselaw, and explains why this has been extinguished by the approach to Article 6 of the Grand Chamber in Al-Khawaja, sacrificing principle to juridical, and possibly political, expediency. The consequence is that Article 6 now only serves to protect the right to a 'fair-ish' trial.

ISBN: 0011-135X

B Bradford, A Huq, J Jackson and B Roberts, 'What price fairness when security is at stake? Police legitimacy in South Africa' (2014) 8 Regulation and Governance 246 [...]

DOI: 10.1111/rego.12012

The legitimacy of legal authorities – particularly the police – is central to the state's ability to function in a normatively justifiable and effective manner. Studies, mostly conducted in the US and UK, regularly find that procedural justice is the most important antecedent of police legitimacy, with judgments about other aspects of police behavior – notably, about effectiveness – appearing less relevant. But this idea has received only sporadic testing in less cohesive societies where social order is more tenuous, resources to sustain it scarcer, and the position of the police is less secure. This paper considers whether the link between process fairness and legitimacy holds in the challenging context of present day South Africa. In a high crime and socially divided society, do people still emphasize procedural fairness or are they more interested in instrumental effectiveness? How is the legitimacy of the police influenced by the wider problems faced by the South African state? We find procedural fairness judgments play a key role, but also that South Africans place greater emphasis on police effectiveness (and concerns about crime). Police legitimacy is, furthermore, associated with citizens' judgments about the wider success and trustworthiness of the state.

B Bradford, P Quinton, A Myhill and G Porter, 'Why do ‘the law’ comply? Procedural justice, group identification and officer motivation in police organizations' (2014) 11 European Journal of Criminology 110 [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1477370813491898

How can police officers be encouraged to commit to changing organizational and personal practice? In this paper we test organizational justice theories that suggest that fair processes and procedures enhance rule compliance and commitment to the organization and its goals. We pay particular attention to (a) tensions between the role of group identity in organizational justice models and classic concerns about ‘cop culture’; and (b) the danger of over-identification with the organization and the counterproductive types of compliance this may engender. Results suggest that organizational justice enhances identification with the police organization, encourages officers to take on new roles, increases positive views of community policing, and is associated with greater self-reported compliance. Identification with the organization has generally positive implications; however, there is some danger that process fairness may encourage unthinking compliance with orders and instructions.

I Goold, 'Why Does It Matter How We Regulate the Use of Human Body Parts?' (2014) 40 Journal of Medical Ethics 3

A L Young, 'Will you, Won't you, Will you join the Deference Dance?' (2014) Oxford Journal of Legal Studies


J Prassl, '"All in it Together?" Labour Markets in Crisis' (2013) 1 Hungarian Labour Law Journal (forthcoming)

A Higgins, 'A defence of qualified one way cost shifting' (2013) 32 Civil Justice Quarterly 198

J J W Herring, 'A Lost Cause' (2013) 17 May 2013 New Law Journal [...]

A discussion of whether unmarried cohabitants are discriminated against if treated unlike married couples

J Prassl, 'A Tale of (Un?)Intended Consequences: Das Vereinigte Königreich in der Krise' (2013) 48 Gesellschaft & Politik (forthcoming)

N Gur, 'Actions, Attitudes, and the Obligation to Obey the Law' (2013) 21 Journal of Political Philosophy 326

R Condry and Caroline Miles, 'Adolescent to Parent Violence: Framing and Mapping a Hidden Problem' (2013) Criminology and Criminal Justice (forthcoming) [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1748895813500155

Adolescent to parent violence is virtually absent from policing, youth justice and domestic violence policy, despite being widely recognized by practitioners in those fields. It is under-researched and rarely appears in criminological discussions of family or youth violence. This article presents the first UK analysis of cases of adolescent to parent violence reported to the police. We analyse victim, offender and incident characteristics from 1892 cases reported to the Metropolitan Police in 2009–2010, most of which involved violence against the person or criminal damage in the home. Our findings reveal that adolescent to parent violence is a gendered phenomenon: 87 per cent of suspects were male and 77 per cent of victims were female. We argue that the absence of adolescent to parent violence from criminological discourse must be addressed if criminology is to have a thorough understanding of family violence in all its forms.

L Ferguson, 'Arbitration in Financial Dispute Resolution: The Final Step to Reconstructing the Default(s) and Exception(s)?' (2013) 35 Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 115 [...]

DOI: 10.1080/09649069.2013.774757

In this article, I argue for caution in embracing family arbitration as a new form of private ordering for resolving parties’ financial disputes. I explain that family arbitration may be more successful than other forms of private ordering and final court hearings in enabling certain types of parties to resolve certain types of disputes. I consider why family arbitration may not become numerically significant despite its potential benefits, but may be much more important in normative terms. Lawyer-led negotiations remain the most common form of out-of-court resolution and constitute the de facto default form of bargaining in the shadow of the normative regime framed by ss 23-25 Matrimonial Causes Act 1973. Together with the transformation in approach to nuptial agreements, family arbitration may mark a normative shift towards autonomy and private ordering. I question whether this is a desirable step for family law, at least before we have resolved the underlying policy debate.

M Mendelson and M Paparinskis, 'Bail-ins and the International Investment Law of Expropriation: in and beyond Cyprus' (2013) 28 Journal of International Banking and Financial Law (forthcoming)

D Awrey, W Blair and D Kershaw, 'Between Law and Markets: Is there a Role for Culture and Ethics in Financial Regulation?' (2013) 38:1 Delaware Journal of Corporate Law 191

L Gullifer and Sophia Hurst, 'Bills of Sale: Ripe for Reform?' (2013) 11 Butterworths Journal of International Banking and Financial Law 685

P Davies and Klaus J Hopt, 'Boards in Europe - Accountability and Convergence' (2013) 61 American Journal of Comparative Law 301 [...]

Corporate boards play a central role in corporate governance and therefore are regulated in the corporate law and corporate governance codes of all industrialized countries. Yet while there is a common core of rules on the boards, considerable differences remain, not only in detail, but sometimes also as to main issues. These differences depend partly on shareholder structure (dispersed or blockholding), partly on path dependent historical, political and social developments, especially employee representation on the board. More recently, in particular with the rise of the international corporate governance code movement there is a clear tendency towards convergence, at least in terms of the formal provisions of the codes. This article analyses the corporate boards, their regulation in law and codes and their actual functioning in nine European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom) in a functional and comparative method. Issues dealt with are inter alia board structure, composition and functioning (one tier v. two tier, independent directors, expertise and diversity, separating the chair and the CEO functions, information streams, committees, voting and employee representation) and enforcement by liability rules (in particular conflicts of interest), incentive structures (remuneration) and shareholder activism. The article finds convergence in these European countries due to the pressures of competition, a pro-shareholder change supported by government and institutional investors and, to a certain degree, the impact of the EU. This convergence shows more in the codes and the ensuing practice than in the statutes. On the other side considerable differences remain, in particular as a result of the failure to adopt a mandatory "no frustration" rule for takeovers at EU level and diverging systems of labor codetermination. The result is an unstable balance between convergence and divergence, shareholder and stakeholder influence and European v. national rulemaking.

ISBN: 0002-919X

Sidney Shapiro and E Fisher, 'Chevron and the Legitmacy of Public Administration' (2013) 22 William and Mary Bill of Rights Law Journal 465

M Kurkchiyan, 'Civil Courts in Ukraine: a Window into Society ' (2013) Journal of Law and Society (forthcoming)

D Akande and Thomas Lieflaender, 'Clarifying Necessity, Imminence, and Proportionality in the Law of Self-Defense' (2013) 107 American Journal of International Law 563

E Fisher, 'Climate Change Litigation, Obsession and Expertise: Reflecting on the Scholarly Response to Massachusetts v EPA' (2013) 39 Law and Policy 236 [...]

DOI: 10.1111/lapo.12006

Climate change litigation is an obsessive preoccupation for many legal scholars. Three different “narratives” can be identified for why scholars find such litigation important to study: litigation is a response to institutional failure, legal reasoning holds authority, and litigation is a forum for the co-production of facts and social orders. The nature and consequences of these narratives are considered in the context of the first U.S. Supreme Court “climate change” case—Massachusetts v. EPA (2007). This analysis has implications for both how scholars understand their expertise in this area, and how they should foster it.

M Köpcke Tinturé, 'Concept and Purpose in Legal Theory: How to "Reclaim" Fuller' (2013) 58 American Journal of Jurisprudence 75

E De Wet and J Vidmar, 'Conflicts between International Paradigms: Hierarchy versus Systemic Integration' (2013) Global Constitutionalism 196

I Benöhr, 'Consumer Dispute Resolution after the Lisbon Treaty' (2013) Volume 36 Journal of Consumer Policy 87

WG Ringe, 'Corporate Mobility in the European Union – a Flash in the Pan? An empirical study on the success of lawmaking and regulatory competition ' (2013) European Company and Financial Law Review 230 [...]

This paper discusses new data on regulatory competition in European company law and the impact of national law reforms, using the example of English company law forms being used by German start-ups. Since 1999, entrepreneurs have been allowed to select foreign legal forms to govern their affairs. The data show that English limited companies have been very popular with German entrepreneurs in the first years of the last decade, but also document a sharp decline from early 2006 onwards. This decline casts doubt over the claim that the German company law reform from November 2008 had ‘successfully fought off’ the use of foreign company forms. Moreover, by contrasting the German data with the corresponding developments in Austria, the paper further demonstrates that the latter jurisdiction sees a similar decline without having reformed its company law. Instead of exclusively relying on law reform as the causal reason for declining foreign incorporation numbers, the paper offers a number of alternative or complementary explanations for the striking developments. The findings are important for our understanding of (defensive) regulatory competition and successful lawmaking.

J Freedman, 'Creating new UK institutions for tax governance and policy making: progress or confusion?' [2013] British Tax Review 373

L Lazarus and Ryan Goss, 'Criminal Justice under the UK Human Rights Act: dynamic interaction between domestic and international law' (2013) Singapore Academy of Law Journal [...]

The article demonstrates how, both before and after the HRA, UK courts and legislators have sought to reconcile common law approaches to protecting rights and liberties with the approaches of the Strasbourg Court. It uses the development of the case law as an insight into a dynamic institutional dialogue: how interaction with the ECtHR has shaped the way that UK courts, governments and Parliament have acted on criminal justice issues and vice versa.

S Meredith, 'Critical review of referencing software when used with OSCOLA' (2013) 4 European Journal of Law and Technology [...]

This case study considers the main features of three referencing software programs – Endnote, Refworks and Zotero – and their advantages and disadvantages for legal scholars. It defines the key useful features of referencing software as being a database for storing information about references or citations; an interface for downloading bibliographic data from catalogues and databases; an interface for inserting that information into footnotes and creating bibliographies; and the possibility of having a variety of styles in which citations can be formatted (OSCOLA, Bluebook, AGLC etc). The software is considered in light of responses to a survey of Oxford University Law Faculty academics and research students about how they manage reference information. A skills level rating is provided for each aspect of the three software programs considered. Other issues, such as storage and annotation of PDFs, sharing libraries and cross referencing of footnotes are also briefly considered. Also available on SSRN

ISBN: 2042-115X

J Payne, 'Cross-border schemes of arrangement and forum shopping' (2013) 14 European Business Organization Law Review 563 [...]

DOI: 10.1017/S1566752912001309

In recent years there has been a growth in the use of English schemes of arrangement by companies registered in other EU Member States. High profile recent examples include TeleColumbas GmbH, Rodenstock GmbH, and Primacom Holdings GmbH. In each case these companies were able to access the English scheme jurisdiction without shifting their seat or COMI to the UK. This paper investigates this phenomenon, considering the use of an English scheme of arrangement and why it might be regarded as valuable to these companies. The paper then tackles two issues. First, it assesses how these companies are able to access the English scheme jurisdiction, and, in particular, analyses the potential application of both the Insolvency Regulation and the Judgments Regulation in this regard. As part of this analysis the recognition and enforcement of English schemes of arrangement in other Member States is discussed. Second, it considers whether this use of English schemes gives rise to issues of forum shopping. This paper rejects the idea that forum shopping should be regarded as a concern in this context.

ISBN: 1566-7529

D P Nolan, 'Damage in the English Law of Negligence' (2013) 4 Journal of European Tort Law 259

E Descheemaeker, 'De la structure de la responsabilité : réflexions comparatistes autour de Torts and Rights' (2013) Revue internationale de droit comparé 51 [...]

This review article examines Robert Stevens’ Torts and Rights, arguably the single most important work on English tort law published over the last decade. Professor Stevens’ thesis is that the English law of torts can be analysed throughout as the body of law that pertains to the violation of primary rights. This argument has far-reaching consequences, in particular when it comes to the transversal tort of negligence, which are of comparative significance. The present author explains the significance of Professor Stevens’ argument against the historical background of English law and proceeds to offer a criticism based on the allegedly defective understanding that the book has of the concept of rights.

D P Nolan, 'Deconstructing the Duty of Care' (2013) 129 Law Quarterly Review 559

S Wallerstein, 'Delegation of Powers and Authority in International Criminal Law' (2013) Criminal Law and Philosophy (forthcoming) [...]

DOI: 10.1007/s11572-013-9203-3

By what right, or under whose authority, do you try me? This is a common challenge raised by defendants standing trial in front of international criminal courts or tribunals. The challenge comes from the fact that traditionally criminal law is justified as a response of the state to wrongdoing that has been identified by the state as a crime. Nevertheless, since the early 1990’s we have seen the development of international criminal tribunals that have the authority to judge certain crimes. This article examines the moral foundation for the authority of international tribunals, arguing that it can be grounded on delegation of powers from the states with primary jurisdiction. The first part of the article examines whether there is any problem, as a matter of principle, in founding the courts’ jurisdictional authority on delegation of powers. It will argue that contrary to David Luban’s view, there is no inherent problem with states delegating their power to punish to other states or to international tribunals. Nevertheless, in making such a decision the ability of the court to provide fair process—a necessary requirement for the court’s ability to issue authoritative decisions—should be taken into account. The second part of the article takes the ICC as a case study and examines whether its jurisdiction can be grounded on delegation of powers. It will be shown that the court’s jurisdiction can indeed be founded on both direct and indirect delegation of jurisdiction from states with primary jurisdiction. This conclusion suggests that other international tribunals created by either multilateral treaties or by Security Council decisions may also be founded on similar grounds

J Rowbottom, 'Deliberation and Mass Media Communication in Election Campaigns' (2013) 12 Election Law Journal 435

J Vidmar, 'Democracy and Regime-Change in the post-Cold War International Law' (2013) New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law 349

J Prassl, 'Die Suche nach dem Arbeitgeber im Englischen Recht' (2013) Europäische Zeitschrift für Arbeitsrecht 472

A Tzanakopoulos and CJ Tams, 'Domestic Courts as Agents of Development of International Law' (2013) 26 Leiden Journal of International Law 531 [...]

DOI: 10.1017/S0922156513000228

The introductory paper to a symposium issue of the Leiden Journal of International Law, edited by the authors, dealing with the function of domestic courts as agents for the development of international law. The paper 'sets the scene' for the contributions to the symposium, which seek to trace the impact of domestic courts in the development of canonical areas of international law, such as jurisdiction, immunity, state responsibility, the law of international organisations/human rights, and the law of armed conflict/conduct of hostilities. It discusses the formal quality and actual influence of domestic court decisions on the development of international law, and introduces the concept of 'agents' of international law development. This is the analytical perspective that the contributions to the symposium adopt.

ISBN: 0922-1565

J Prassl, 'Employee Shareholder "Status"? Dismantling the Contract of Employment' (2013) 42 ILJ 307

WG Ringe, 'Empty Voting Revisited: The Telus Saga' (2013) 28 Journal of International Banking and Financial Law 154 [...]

The recent conflict between Canadian telecommunications provider Telus and US-based hedge fund Mason Capital is the most recent illustration of ‘empty voting’ – a strategy whereby activist investors eliminate their risk exposure to shares in target companies to pursue idiosyncratic motives. As courts are struggling to find adequate solutions, regulators worldwide are called upon to provide reliable tools to this threat to shareholder voting.

H Collins, 'Entretiens sur le droit du licenciement pour motif économique: Royaume Uni ' (2013) 6 Revue de Droit du Travail 430

Henrique Pacini, Maria Montoya Diaz, Valéria Guimarães and I Benöhr, 'Environmental and competitive performances' (2013) 36 (3) September 2013. World Competition, Law and Economics Review

E Fisher, 'Environmental Law as 'Hot' Law' (2013) 25 Journal of Environmental Law 347 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/jel/eqt025

The polycentric, interdisciplinary, normative and scientifically uncertain nature of environmental problems leads to a body of environmental law in which it can be difficult to settle on a single frame for understanding a problem and thus to identify relevant parties, the relationships between them, and the courses of action that can be taken. Using Michel Callon’s terminology this can be understood as ‘hot situations’ leading to ‘hot law’. In this Introduction to the Special Issue celebrating 25 years of the Journal of Environmental Law the nature of ‘hot environmental law’ is considered, as is the role of environmental law scholarship.

P P Craig, 'EU Accession to the ECHR: Competence, Procedure and Substance' (2013) 36 Fordham International Law Journal 1115

S J Bright and H Dixie, 'Evidence of Green Leases in England and Wales' (2013) 6 International Journal of Law in the Built Environment 6 [...]

DOI: 10.1108/IJLBE-07-2013-0027

This paper reports on research that investigates the use of green clauses in leases of office and retail premises in England and Wales. We examined 26 recent leases of green build properties registered at HM Land Registry. The green clauses discovered were classified, and compared with the model form green clauses promoted by the London based Better Building Partnership’s Green Lease Toolkit.

P Davies, 'Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and Bank of England memorandum on resolving globally active systemically important financial institutions' (2013) 7 Law and Financial Markets Review 304 [...]

DOI: 10.5235/17521440.7.6.304

The cross-border co-ordination necessary for the successful resolution of global systemically important financial institutions (G-SIFIs) has emerged as a major issue in the post-crisis reforms. In particular, the Financial Stability Board addressed this issue in its “Key Attributes of Effective Resolution for Financial Institutions”, adopted in 2011. However, little exists by way of operational machinery to give effect to the Key Attributes. The memorandum of December 2012 setting out the understandings of the resolution authorities in the US and the UK as to how they will effect a “single point of entry” resolution of a G-SIFI is thus an important first step. This article analyses the agreement, identifying the conditions necessary for it to operate successfully. It is noted that, for understandable reasons, both countries have also put in place resolution mechanisms which do not depend upon appropriate action by the home-state regulator.

ISBN: ISSN 1752-1440

J J W Herring, 'Forging a relational approach: Best interests or human rights?' (2013) Medical Law Internation

E Fisher, 'Framing Risk Regulation: A Critical Reflection' (2013) 4 European Journal of Risk Regulation 125

E Ramaekers and B Akkermans, 'Free Movement of Goods and Property Law' (2013) 19 European Law Journal 237

D Erdos, 'Freedom of Expression Turned On Its Head: Academic Social Research and Journalism in the European Union\\\'s Privacy Framework' [2013] Public Law 52 [...]

This article argues that mainstream interpreters have been wrong to hold that academic investigations into social (including historical and political) affairs may benefit only from restrictive “research” provisions of the European Union Privacy Framework, namely Data Protection Directive 95/46/EC and transposing national laws, and not from the far more liberal provisions provided for journalism, literature and art. Academic social investigation is clearly orientated towards the production of books, articles and other publications. It fits entirely within “literary” and possibly even “journalistic” processing. Even if such work also falls within “research” as per the Directive, the exemptions in the instrument cannot sensibly be read as imposing a rigid exclusivity requirement on processing. By imposing severe restraints on “high value” academic speech whilst granting “low-value” “infotainment” a much freer rein, the mainstream interpretation does nothing less than turn the logic of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)’s freedom of expression jurisprudence on its head.

ISBN: 0033-3565

S Fredman, 'From Dialogue to Deliberation: Human Rights Adjudication and Prisoners’ Rights to Vote' [2013] Public Law 292 [...]

The interpretation of human rights inevitably requires value judgements. But if the power of interpretation and limitation of human rights is left to elected legislators on the basis of majority voting, perpetual minorities may be perpetually subordinated. But leaving judges to make the final decision flies in the face of the basic principle that all fundamental decisions in society should be taken by the people themselves. Prisoners’ voting rights throw the dilemma into particularly sharp relief. Should an elected legislature have the final say on removing the fundamental right to vote from a section of the population, particularly one which is deeply unpopular and which politicians have no natural interest in defending? The most promising way out of this dilemma is to move away from a polarisation between courts and legislatures, and instead regard both as contributing to a democratic resolution of human rights disputes. An increasingly influential stream of thought characterises the relationship as one of dialogue. Rather than courts having the final say, judicial decisions provoke a response from the legislature. In this paper, I aim to go beyond a dialogic model and propose one based on deliberative democracy. Drawing on the distinction between interest bargaining and value-based or deliberative decisions, I argue that human rights can only be properly addressed within a democracy through deliberative means. In other words, the power of the principle should constitute the reason for adopting it, rather than the power of those whose interests it serves. Otherwise, those without political power risk perpetual subordination, undermining the raison d’être of human rights protection. It is here that the courts are in a position to make a unique contribution to the democratic resolution of human rights issues. I argue that courts should ensure that human rights decisions are indeed taken deliberatively within the constraints set by the human rights themselves. I call this a ‘bounded deliberative’ approach. The final section applies these principles to prisoners’ voting rights cases in South Africa and the UK.

ISBN: 0033-3565

A J B Sirks, 'Furtum and manus / potestas' (2013) 81 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 465 [...]

The nature of furtum has been subjected to various interpretations, often with the assumption that this changed between the Twelve Tables and end of the 2nd century AD. It is submitted here that the delict was originally an intrusion upon the power of the pater familias and in its most acute form (furtum manifestum) punished with a religious sanction, viz. declaring the fur sacer. The same sanction is found in the Twelve Tables for other delicts, connected with the power of the pater familias. Since manifest furtum always implied that the fur was caught red handed, desacralisation of the delict led to a reduction of this to mere being caught in the act.

ISBN: ISSN 0040-7585

A Dickinson, 'Germany v. Italy and the Territorial Tort Exception: Walking the Tightrope' (2013) 11 Journal of International Criminal Justice 147

S J Bright, 'Green Leases – Becoming more usual? ' (2013) Estates Gazette

Loane Skene, I Goold and Jonathan Herring, 'Guest editorial: Regulating the use of human bodily material' (2013) 21 Journal of Law and Medicine 245 [...]

The articles in this Special Issue consider recent developments in the law regulating the use of human bodily material and the wider implications of those developments. For some time, the law has accepted that a person who has undertaken "work and skill" on excised bodily material may obtain at least a possessory right; but the person from whom the material came did not have such a right. Now, however, the law has recognised that people may have some legal rights regarding their own bodily material. What is the nature and source of those rights? Should they be expanded? If so, what legal principles are best to do that? The most frequent suggestion is the law of property but many other areas of law are also relevant: the law of contract; tort (bailment and consent); criminal law (eg forensic testing); gifts; custodianship and others. These regulatory options are outlined in this Editorial and discussed by lawyers and other contributors in their articles in this Special Issue. There are also stimulating philosophical reflections on the nature of human bodily material.

WG Ringe, 'Hedge Funds and Risk-Decoupling – The Empty Voting Problem in the European Union' (2013) 36 Seattle University Law Review 1027 [...]

Negative risk-decoupling, otherwise known as empty voting, is a popular strategy amongst hedge funds and other activist investors. In short, it is the attempt to decouple the economic risk from the share’s ownership position, retaining in particular the voting right without risk. This paper uses three perspectives to analyse the problems created by negative risk-decoupling: an agency costs approach, an analysis of information costs, and a perspective from corporate finance. It shows how risk-decoupling is a type of market behaviour that creates significant costs for market participants, in particular existing shareholders and potential investors. The paper then develops regulatory responses, envisaged particularly for EU level lawmaking, but also raises underlying issues on a more general level. Whilst several proposed regulatory tools are rejected, the paper prefers a solution that uses continuous transparency as the cornerstone. In addition, it suggests that in certain individual cases, national regulators should be empowered to suspend activists’ voting rights. The paper concludes by offering a concrete legislative proposal, amending the European Transparency Directive.

ISBN: 1078-1927

D Leczykiewicz, 'Horizontal Application of the Charter of Fundamental Rights' (2013) 38 European Law Review 479

R Bird, 'How LawSauce came to be' (2013) Internet Newsletter for Lawyers 9 [...]

The reasons for developing an app, the work involved, and the legal resources included are outlined in this article on the creation of Lawsauce

ISBN: 2046-9284

R Ekins, 'How to be a Free People' (2013) 58 American Journal of Jurisprudence 163

Simon Whittaker, 'Identifying the Legal Costs of Operation of the Common European Sales Law' (2013) 50 Common Market Law Review 85

E Hudson, 'Implementing Fair Use in Copyright Law: Lessons from Australia' (2013) 25 Intellectual Property Journal 201

J Prassl, 'Implementing the New Employee-Shareholder Status' (2013) SJ 9

M Chen-Wishart, 'In defence of consideration' (2013) 13 Oxford University Commonwealth Law Journal 209

WG Ringe, 'Independent Directors: After the Crisis' (2013) 14 European Business Organization Law Review 401 [...]

This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed that they did not prevent firms’ excessive risk-taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board independence. This would redefine independence to include those directors that are independent of the firm’s controller, but at the same time it would require them to be more accountable to (minority) shareholders.

N Ghanea, 'Intersectionality and the Spectrum of Racist Hate Speech: Proposals to the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination' (2013) Human Rights Quarterly (forthcoming)

M Paparinskis, 'Investment Treaty Arbitration and the (New) Law of State Responsibility ' (2013) 24 European Journal of International Law 617 [...]

The case study of investment treaty arbitration provides an opportunity to examine whether and how the invocation of responsibility by a non-state actor has affected secondary rules of state responsibility. This article takes the analytical perspective of investors, capable of being perceived as right-holders (by reference to human and consular rights), beneficiaries (by reference to the law of treaties rules on third states), or agents (by reference to diplomatic protection). The shift from the state to the investor as the entity invoking responsibility for the breach of investment treaties seems to have influenced the law of state responsibility in a number of distinct ways. The apparent disagreement about the law of state responsibility may sometimes properly relate to questions of treaty interpretation, while in other cases rules from an inter-state context are applied verbatim. In other cases, the different perspectives lead to importantly different conclusions regarding circumstances precluding wrongfulness, elements of remedies, waiver of rights, and, possibly, interpretative relevance of diplomatic protection rules. The overall thesis is that conceptual challenges faced by investment arbitration may be illuminated by the solutions provided by the regimes that formed the background for its creation.

M Kurkchiyan, 'Justice Through Bureaucracy: The Ukrainian Model' (2013) Social Legal Studies

A Tzanakopoulos, 'L'invocation de la théorie des contre-mesures en tant que justification de la désobéissance au Conseil de sécurité' (2013) 46 Revue belge de droit international 78 [...]

This paper discusses (in French) whether countermeasures can be invoked as a justification for disobeying binding decisions of the Security Council under Chapter VII of the UN Charter. The first part establishes how the Security Council may engage the international responsibility of the UN and who should be allowed to determine that such engagement has in fact taken place. The second part argues that disobedience of illegal sanctions adopted by the Council may be justified under international law as a countermeasure in response to the Council's (the UN's) internationally wrongful act.

ISBN: 0035-0788

J Cartwright, 'La preuve en droit continental et en common law - Le point sur la preuve en matière des contrats en droit anglais.' (2013) La Semaine Juridique Notariale et Immobilière 26 [...]

Abstract: There is no "hierarchy of proof" in English law as there is in French law. English law does not use authentic acts; the deed is a private document. Although there are only a few exceptions to the basic rule that no formalities of writing are required for the creation of a contract, nor for its enforceability, yet where the contract is in writing the written document has great significance, particularly in the light of the principles of (objective) interpretation of the contract.

Discussion of the significance of writing in English law of contract. Article is in French.

ISBN: 0242-5785

AYK Lee, 'Legal Coercion, Respect & Reason-responsive Agency' (2013) Ethical Theory and Moral Practice [...]

DOI: 10.1007/s10677-013-9486-4

Legal coercion seems morally problematic because it is susceptible to the Hegelian objection that it fails to respect individuals in a way that is ‘due to them as men’. But in what sense does legal coercion fail to do so? And what are the grounds for this requirement to respect? This paper is an attempt to answer these questions. It argues that (a) legal coercion fails to respect individuals as reason-responsive agents; and (b) individuals ought to be respected as such in virtue of the fact that they are human beings. Thus it is in this sense that legal coercion fails to treat individuals with the kind of respect ‘due to them as men’.

M Chen-Wishart, 'Legal Transplant and Undue Influence: Lost in Translation or a Working Misunderstanding' (2013) 62 International and Comparative Law Quarterly (forthcoming) [...]

Is legal transplant possible? The stark bipolarity of a ‘yes’ or ‘no’ answer attracted by such a question is much less interesting and revealing than the question: what shapes the life of legal transplants? The answer to the latter question is contingent on a wide range of variables triggered by the particular transplant; the result can occupy any point along the spectrum from faithful replication to outright rejection. This case study of the transplant of the English doctrine of undue influence into Singaporean law asks why the Singaporean courts have applied the doctrine in family guarantee cases to such divergent effect, when they profess to apply the same law. The answer requires an examination of the relationship between law and society, and between the formal and informal legal orders of the originating and the recipient society.

ISBN: 0020-5893

J Rowbottom, 'Leveson, press freedom and the watchdogs' (2013) 21 Renewal 57

P Davies, 'Liquidity Safety Nets for Banks' (2013) 13 Journal of Corporate Law Studies 285 [...]

DOI: 10.5235/14735970.13.2.287

Liquidity shocks are a core risk of the business model of commercial banks, which is founded on a liquidity mismatch between the banks’ liabilities and assets. A substantial part of the banks’ funding comes from short-term retail and wholesale funding, whilst a substantial part of the assets are long-term and illiquid loans. This is the source of the banks’ profi ts, but also of their claim to fulfi l an important social role. Having argued that leaving the solution to this problem to the banks alone is unsafe, this article turns to examine three regulatory strategies for reducing the incidence of liquidity shocks or making banks more resilient to them. They are: regulating the level of banks’ liquidity reserves, insuring the value of the banks’ long-term assets and guaranteeing the discharge of the banks’ short-term liabilities. The criteria of assessment are the least impact on the banks’ social role of transforming short-term deposits into long-term loans, coupled with the least incentive for banks to take excessive risk, the least subsidy to banking and the least cost to the public purse. It is suggested that insuring the value of the banks’ long-term assets emerges as the most attractive strategy.

ISBN: 1473-5970

P Pascual, W Wagner and E Fisher, 'Making Method Visible: Improving the Quality of Science-Based Regulation' (2013) 2 Michigan Journal of Environmental and Administrative Law 429

J M Eekelaar, 'Marriage - a modest proposal' (2013) 43 Family Law 82 [...]

A critical account of ther law in England and Wales governing entry into marriage and suggestions for reform

ISBN: 0014-728

J J W Herring, 'Mental disability and capacity to consent to sex' (2013) 34 Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 471

WG Ringe, 'Menügesetzgebung im Privatrecht' (2013) 213 Archiv für die civilistische Praxis (AcP) 98 [...]

This paper explores the benefit of using menu structures for regulatory purposes in private law. Menus have been used rarely by regulators and lawmakers in the past. Insofar as they are used, they address situations where market participants have relatively heterogeneous preferences, where the subject matter of regulation itself is heterogeneous, or where a political consensus appears difficult. This paper addresses a number of benefits that reach beyond the traditional perception of menu lawmaking. Benefiting from insights from economics and behavioural science, several benefits can be identified that exploit the full potential of menu lamaking. Central to these benefits is the notion of endowment effect (or status quo bias) involved with traditional default rules: where the law provides just one default rule, market participants will mostly stick to this rule out of pure convenience. This means that simple default rules are frequently inappropriate to identify the preference of market participants. This problem can be overcome by using menus, giving consumers a choice between different options, each of which is endorsed by the authority and impartiality of the parliamentary lawmaker. But menus have many other advantages than traditional black-or-white legal rules.

ISBN: 0003-8997

J Jackson, A Huq, B Bradford and TR Tyler, 'Monopolizing Force? Police Legitimacy and Public Attitudes Toward the Acceptability of Violence' (2013) 19 Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 479 [...]

DOI: 10.1037/a0033852

Why do people believe that violence is acceptable? In this article, the authors study people’s normative beliefs about the acceptability of violence to achieve social control (as a substitute for the police, for self-protection and the resolution of disputes) and social change (through violent protests and acts to achieve political goals). Addressing attitudes toward violence among young men from various ethnic minority communities in London, the authors find that procedural justice is strongly correlated with police legitimacy, and that positive judgments about police legitimacy are associated with more negative views about the use of violence. They conclude with the idea that police legitimacy has an additional, hitherto unrecognized, empirical property—by constituting the belief that the police monopolise rightful force in society, legitimacy has a “crowding out” effect on positive views of private violence.

D P Nolan, 'Negligence and Human Rights: The Case for Separate Development' (2013) 76 Modern Law Review 286

A J B Sirks, 'Noxa caput sequitur' (2013) 81 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 81 [...]

Generally it is assumed that caput in the phrase noxa caput sequitur refers to the delinquent slave or filius familias. The liability for the delict is attached to his person. It is argued, however, that caput refers to the pater familias of the deliquent. The Twelve Tables contained a rule on their direct and personal liability (with surrender to the autorities). The introduction of the edicts on furtum and the lex Aquilia, with the direct and exclusive liability of the pater familias for the wrongdoings of those, subjected to his potestas, led to a correction: the pater could now refuse to defend them and surrender them to the authorities, or engage in the process, with afterwards still the possibility to surrender, now to the plaintiff. The phrase as such refers then to the inclusion of the decemviral rule on liability of persons, subjected to patria potestas, into the formulas for the delicts.

ISBN: ISSN 0040-7585

A S Burrows, 'Numbers Sitting in the Supreme Court' (2013) 129 Law Quarterly Review 305

S Wallerstein, 'Oblique Intent in English and Jewish Law' (2013) (forthcoming)

A Myhill and B Bradford, 'Overcoming cop culture? Organizational justice and police officers’ attitudes toward the public' (2013) 36 Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 338 [...]

DOI: 10.1108/13639511311329732

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to test theories of organizational justice in the context of a police agency. Design/methodology/approach – Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to analyze data from a survey of officers in a police force in England. Findings – The SEM showed that organizational justice was associated with positive attitudes towards serving members of the public. This relationship was mediated by commitment to elements of community policing and, for community police officers, by general satisfaction with the organization. Practical implications – The findings suggest that police managers committed to implementing process-based policing policies may need to ensure their organizations also implement internal policies and practices that are procedurally fair. Originality/value – This study is one of the first to apply the well established literature on organizational justice to the context of policing, and the first to examine the impact of organizational justice on alignment with community policing and the service model.

J Vidmar, 'Palestine and the Conceptual Problem of Implicit Statehood' (2013) 12 Chinese Journal of International Law 19

J Rowbottom, 'Politicians, the Press and Lobbying' (2013) 5 Journal of Media Law

P P Craig, 'Pringle and Use of EU Institutions Outside the EU Legal Framework: Foundations, Procedure and Substance' (2013) 9 EuConst 263

P P Craig, 'Pringle: Legal Reasoning, Text, Purpose and Teleology ' (2013) 20 Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law 1

M Paparinskis, 'Procedural Aspects of Shared Responsibility in the International Court of Justice' (2013) 4 Journal of International Dispute Settlement 295 [...]

In recent years, the International Court of Justice has been increasingly asked to adjudicate upon claims of State responsibility that raise or at least touch upon the possibility of international responsibility of multiple entities. In different substantive contexts, these cases raise similar conceptual questions that might be articulated by reference to the concept of ‘shared responsibility’. The focus of this article is on procedural matters, and in particular on how shared responsibility may be implemented in the ICJ. The argument will be made in three steps, dealing in turn with the manner in which cases concerning shared responsibility could be brought before the Court, the way how such cases could be handled, and the challenges raised in such cases by absent parties. The article argues for a nuanced consideration of the rationale of the procedural challenges: some are unremarkable in conceptual terms and reflect the broader judicial architecture of the Court, while others are of particular importance for shared responsibility, even though the particular legal issue might be mutatis mutandis relevant to other multilateral disputes.

I Goold, 'Property or Not Property? The Spectrum of Approaches to Regulating the Use of Human Bodily Material' (2013) 21 Journal of Law and Medicine 299 [...]

This article presents the case for taking a property approach in regulating the use of human bodily material. It examines the current debates on the issue and outlines the various perspectives, ranging from the anti-property stance, through the spectrum of positions on modified and semi-proprietary approaches, through to the "full-blooded" property approach advocated by some commentators. It elucidates why those approaches that allow some proprietary aspects into regulation are to be preferred.

D Sarooshi, 'Provisional Measures and Investment Treaty Arbitration' (2013) 29 Arbitration International 361

AYK Lee, 'Public Wrongs and the Criminal Law' (2013) Criminal Law and Philosophy [...]

DOI: 10.1007/s11572-013-9231-z

This paper is about how best to understand the notion of ‘public wrongs’ in the longstanding idea that crimes are public wrongs. By contrasting criminal law with the civil laws of torts and contracts, it argues that ‘public wrongs’ should not be understood merely as wrongs that properly concern the public, but more specifically as those which the state, as the public, ought to punish. It then briefly considers the implications that this has on criminalization.

E Descheemaeker, 'Quasi-contrats et enrichissement injustifié en droit français' (2013) 112 Revue trimestrielle de droit civil 1 [...]

Of Justinian’s four classes of obligations (ex contractu, quasi ex contractu, ex delicto, quasi ex delicto), the quasi-contractual one has resisted rationalisation the longest. This paper makes the claim that quasi-contracts should disappear, as a category, from French law and be replaced with a general action in unjustified enrichment. It also explores the difficulties that such a switch would entail.

John Gardner, 'Reasons and Abilities: Some Preliminaries' (2013) 58 American Journal of Jurisprudence 63 [...]

This paper takes some first steps in a study of the thesis that “ought” implies “can.” Considerable attention is given to the proper interpretation of the thesis, including the interpretation of “ought,” the interpretation of “can,” and the interpretation of “implies.” Having chosen a particular interpretation of the thesis to work on—in some ways its broadest interpretation—the paper tries to bring out some considerations that bear on its truth or falsity. After an excursion into the general theory of value, this paper finds it false. The paper concludes with the suggestion that part of its allure comes of confusion with another thesis, namely the thesis that “ought to try” implies “can succeed.” Suitably qualified, this last thesis is true, and the false thesis that “ought” implies “can” basks in the reflected glory. Left for another day are narrower interpretations of “ought” implies “can” which may protect it against my objections.

A Briggs, 'Recognition of Foreign Judgments: A Matter of Obligation' (2013) 129 (2013) Law Quarterly Review, Sweet & Maxwell 87 [...]

Evaluation of the theory explaining which foreign judgments have an effect (and if any, what effect) in the English legal order.

ISBN: 0023-933X

A J B Sirks, 'Reform and Legislation in the Roman Empire' (2013) 125 Mélanges École française de Rome (MEFRA) 2

Imogen Goold, Loane Skene and J J W Herring, 'Regulating the Use of Human Bodily Material' (2013) 245-250 Journal of Law and Medicine

S Vogenauer, 'Regulatory Competition Through Choice of Contract Law and Choice of Forum in Europe: Theory and Evidence' (2013) 21 European Review of Private Law 13-78 [...]

This paper challenges the claim that there is regulatory competition in the areas of contract law and civil litigation. It is frequently assumed that law makers reform their contract laws and dispute resolution mechanisms with the purpose of attracting ‘users’, i.e. parties to cross-border contracts who choose the contract law or the courts of a given legal system. I shall discuss this assumption and its plausibility in the first part of the paper. In the second part I will test the assumption by presenting the available empirical evidence on the choices of contract law and forum that businesses in Europe actually make. For a long time such data has been largely absent from the debate. Moreover, I assemble evidence of law makers competing for the production of the most attractive legal regimes in the areas of contract law and civil litigation. I conclude that meaningful regulatory competition in the areas concerned cannot be predicted with confidence; nor is there evidence of its existence.

J J W Herring and P-L Chau, 'Relational Bodies' (2013) 21 Journal of Law and Medicine 294

P S Davies and Graham Virgo, 'Relieving trustees' mistakes' [2013] RLR 74

R George and O Cominetti, 'Relocation in English Law: Thorpe LJ’s Discipline and Its Application' [2013] International Family Law 149

R George, 'Relocation: Key Findings from the 2012 Study' (2013) Family Law 1430 and 1573

K Bullock and R Condry, 'Responding to denial, minimization and blame in correctional settings: The ‘real world’ implications of offender neutralizations' (2013) 10 European Journal of Criminology 572 [...]

DOI: 10.1177/1477370813475391

This article examines ‘real-world’ implications of offender neutralizations. Drawing on empirical evidence derived from a study of the operation of community-based cognitive-behavioural programmes for perpetrators of domestic violence, it focuses on the implications, for offenders, of displaying neutralizations in correctional treatment settings. This article draws attention to the complex relationship between neutralization and correctional group work practice. First, it demonstrates that neutralization of offending does not always have the negative implications for offenders that have been assumed by some commentators. Neutralization may not preclude enrolment on to a correctional programme, is not always challenged in a confrontational way by practitioners and does not automatically result in suspension and the application of more punitive criminal sanctions. Second, the article demonstrates the difficulties that practitioners and participants face in tackling neutralizations in this context. Our findings suggest a need to rethink the central role that neutralizations play in aspects of contemporary criminal justice practice.

J Vidmar, 'Rethinking Jus Cogens after Germany v. Italy: Back to Article 53?' (2013) 60 Netherlands International Law Review 1

P P Craig, 'Review, Risk, Legality and Damages' (2013) 4 European Journal of Risk Regulation 399

N. W. Barber, 'Self-Defence for Institutions ' (2013) 72 Cambridge Law Journal 558

J Roberts, 'Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales: Recent Developments and Emerging Issues' (2013) Law and Contemporary Problems

L Green, 'Should Law Improve Morality?' (2013) 7 Criminal Law and Philosophy 473 [...]

DOI: 10.1007/s11572-013-9248-3

Lawyers and philosophers have long debated whether law should enforce social morality. This paper explores whether law should improve social morality. It explains how this might be possible, and what sort of obstacles, factual and moral, there are to doing so. It concludes with an example: our law should attempt to improve our social morality of sexual conduct.

ISBN: 1871-9791

G Loutzenhiser, 'Tax Avoidance, Private Companies and the Family' (2013) Cambridge Law Journal (forthcoming)

J Vidmar, 'Territorial Integrity and the Law of Statehood' (2013) 44 George Washington International Law Review 697

A Dickinson, 'Territory in the Rome I and Rome II Regulations' [2013] Lloyd's Maritime and Commercial Law Quarterly 86

I Loader, B Goold and A Thumala, 'The Banality of Security: The Curious Case of Surveillance Cameras' (2013) 53 British Journal of Criminology 977 [...]

Why do certain security goods become banal (while others do not)? Under what conditions does banality occur and with what effects? In this paper we answer these questions by examining the story of closed circuit television cameras (CCTV) in Britain. We consider the lessons to be learned from CCTV’s rapid – but puzzling - transformation from novelty to ubiquity, and what the banal properties of CCTV tell us about the social meanings of surveillance and security. We begin by revisiting and reinterpreting the historical process through which camera surveillance has diffused across the British landscape, focussing on the key developments that encoded CCTV in certain dominant meanings (around its effectiveness, for example) and pulled the cultural rug out from under alternative or oppositional discourses. Drawing upon interviews with those who produce and consume CCTV, we tease out and discuss the family of meanings that can lead one justifiably to describe CCTV as a banal good. We then examine some frontiers of this process and consider whether novel forms of camera surveillance (such as domestic CCTV systems) may press up against the limits of banality in ways that risk unsettling security practices whose social value and utility have come to be taken for granted. In conclusion, we reflect on some wider implications of banal security and its limits.

ISBN: 0007-0955

I Goold, 'The Concise Argument: Withholding Artificial Nutrition and Hydration' (2013) 39 Journal of Medical Ethics 541

Bjorge, 'The Courts and the ECHR: A Principled Approach to the Strasbourg Jurisprudence' (2013)

M Hough, J Jackson and B Bradford, 'The drivers of police legitimacy: some European research' (2013) 8 Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism 144 [...]

DOI: 10.1080/18335330.2013.821735

This article summarises some of the thinking and empirical findings behind a programme of survey work on procedural justice theory in Europe. The paper locates procedural justice theory in a framework of compliance theories and sketches out the main features of it, defining the central concept of legitimacy. It then presents the findings from the fifth European Social Survey, drawing on a ‘trust in justice’ module that was designed by the authors and colleagues. This provides a good support for the procedural justice hypotheses that we set out to test—that different types of public trust in the police (trust that they are effective, procedurally fair and distributively fair) are related to public perceptions of police legitimacy, which in turn are related to self-reported compliance with the law and preparedness to cooperate with the police.

G S Goodwin-Gill, 'The Dynamic of International Refugee Law' (2013) 25 Oxford University Press / International Journal of Refugee Law 651 [...]

Reviews the first 25 years of the IJRL, examines current problems and developments, and looks ahead.

ISBN: ISSN 0953-8186

J Pila, 'The European Patent: An Old and Vexing Problem' (2013) 62(4) International & Comparative Law Quarterly 917–940 [...]

Pre-print available at

J Prassl, 'The European Union and The Montreal Convention: A New Analytical Framework' (2013) 12 Issues in Aviation Law and Policy 381

S Fredman and J. Fudge, 'The Legal Construction of Personal Work Relations and Gender' (2013) 7 Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies 112 [...]

The rigid divide between a standard employment contract and other work relations has always presented particular difficulties for women. There is a fundamental mismatch between the binary divide that is inscribed in law and many women’s experience, in which the boundaries between paid and unpaid work, between public and private, and between the labor market and social security are permeable and shifting. The effects of this mismatch are particularly felt among those women who predominate among “non-standard” workers, who find themselves characterized as “independent” or “quasi-independent” despite the reality of their lack of real autonomy or self-sufficiency in the market. But this mismatch also has serious effects for those women at any one time employed under an employment contract because of the incentives created by the law for employers to cut costs by re-characterizing their relationship as falling on the far side of the binary divide. Freedland and Kountouris’s extraordinarily perceptive book, The Legal Construction of Personal Work Relations, not only allows us to escape from this rigid legal typology, it sheds light on the complex interactions between the many different personal work relations and labor market statuses that women engage in throughout their lives, pointing the way to a system of legal entitlements which better reflects these realities. In this review, we focus on the analytical and normative contributions made by The Legal Construction of Personal Work Relations2 in understanding and addressing how the current process of legal categorization disadvantages women workers. In the first part, we outline the critical analytical and conceptual advances that Freedland and Kountouris make in the legal categorization of work relations. In the second part, we draw out the implications of their analysis in three areas that are shaped by the relationship between women’s paid and unpaid work: precarious work; equal pay and job segregation; and maternity and parental rights.

S Fredman and J. Fudge, 'The Legal Construction of Personal Work Relations and Gender ' (2013) 7 Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies (2013) 112 [...]

DOI: 10.1093/jrls/jlt019

The rigid divide between a standard employment contract and other work relations has always presented particular difficulties for women. There is a fundamental mismatch between the binary divide that is inscribed in law and many women’s experience, in which the boundaries between paid and unpaid work, between public and private, and between the labor market and socialsecurity are permeable and shifting. Freedland and Kountouris’s extraordinarily perceptive book, The Legal Construction of PersonalWork Relations, not only allows us to escape from this rigid legal typology, it sheds light on the complex interactions between the many different personal work relations and labour market statuses that women engage in throughout their lives, pointing the way to a system of legal entitlements which better reflects these realities.

ISBN: 2219-7117

D P Nolan, 'The Liability of Financial Supervisory Authorities' (2013) 4 Journal of European Tort Law 190

F Pirie, 'The limits of the state: coercion and consent in Chinese Tibet' (2013) 72 Journal of Asian Studies 69 [...]

DOI: 10.1017/S0021911812001805

Although China’s Tibetans profoundly mistrust the ideologies of the party-state, associating them with illegitimate practices of domination, protest and revolt are rare and effectively suppressed. This might be seen as quasi-colonial domination, the state securing subjection through the performance of paramount power, demonstrated by its suppression of the 2008 protests; or, it could be attributed to a form of indirect rule, by which local officials engage with local leaders to generate hegemonic consent. While both dynamics are present on the Tibetan plateau, ethnographic fieldwork among the Tibetan populations of Qinghai and Gansu provinces reveals that consent is primarily generated by local officials who negotiate a form of local order with religious and tribal leaders. Ignoring the ideological demands of their superiors, they engage constructively with the expectations of the Tibetans about how order should be maintained and, in doing so, subvert the state’s ideal of uniform and unitary sovereignty.

P P Craig, 'The Nature of Reasonableness Review' (2013) Current Legal Problems 1

J Prassl, 'The Notion of the Employer' (2013) 129 LQR 380

S Rayner, C Heyward, T Kruger and others, 'The Oxford Principles ' (2013) Volume 121, Issue 3 Climatic Change 499 [...]

Scientific momentum is increasing behind efforts to develop geoengineering options, but it is widely acknowledged that the challenges of geoengineering are as much political and social as they are technical. Legislators are looking for guidance on the governance of geoengineering research and possible deployment. The Oxford Principles are five high-level principles for geoengineering governance. This article explains their intended function and the core societal values which they attempt to capture. Finally, it proposes a framework for their implementation in a flexible governance architecture through the formulation of technology-specific research protocols. • This article is part of a special issue on “Geoengineering Research and its Limitations” edited by Robert Wood, Stephen Gardiner, and Lauren Hartzell-Nichols.

A J B Sirks, 'The parallel universes of Baker, Joblin and Julian: causation and law' (2013) 17 Edinburgh Law Review 22–36

J J W Herring and Oliver Powell, 'The rise and fall of presumptions surrounding the welfare principle' (2013) 43 Family Law 553

D J Galligan, 'The Sovereignty Deficit of Modern Constitutions' (2013) 33 Oxford Journal of Legal Studies (forthcoming) [...]

A study of the sixty-five constitutions of the nations ranked most democratic shows how the people are presented and the severe sovereignty deficit.

ISBN: 0143-6503

W E Peel, 'The Termination Paradox' (2013) Lloyds Maritime & Commercial Law Quarterly 519 [...]

An article dealing with the circumstances in which termination for breach of contract pursuant to the express provisions of the contract may prevent submission that the contract was terminated for repudiatory breach, analysing the basis for such a finding (which appears to lie in affrmation), its consequences, and potential solutions for parties wishing to retain the right to sue for repudiatory breach

ISBN: 0306-2945

S Vogenauer, 'The UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts 2010 - Die UNIDROIT Grundregeln der internationalen Handelsverträge 2010' (2013) Zeitschrift für Europäisches Privatrecht 7-42 [...]

An overview of the evolution of the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial Contracts over the past 30 years, the genesis of the 2010 version, the new subject-matters covered and the future of the project.

J M Eekelaar, 'Then and Now: Family Law's Direction of Travel' (2013) 35 Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law 415 [...]

By comparing reported cases from 1959-60 with those in 2011, the article reveals the way family law has changed over this period, becoming much more attuned to people's real problems. This has however thrown up difficulties in its application; some of the responses to these difficulties are considered.

ISBN: 0964-9069

J Prassl, 'Third Time Lucky? The Proposed Employee-Shareholder Status' (2013) SJ 19

A C L Davies, 'This Time, it’s for Real: the Health And Social Care Act 2012' (2013) 76 Modern Law Review 564 [...]

This article examines the Health and Social Care Act 2012 and associated reforms to the National Health Service in England. It focuses on the Act’s policy of making the NHS market more ‘real’, by both encouraging and compelling NHS bodies to act as ‘market players’. The article considers whether the reforms are compatible with the constitutional requirements of accountability for the provision of a public service such as the NHS. I argue that the reforms threaten accountability for three reasons: they make the Secretary of State for Health’s relationship with the NHS more complex, they create opaque networks of non-statutory bodies which may influence NHS decision-making, and (especially in relation to competition) they ‘juridify’ policy choices as matters of law. Taken together, these arguments suggest that there is force in the claim that the reforms will contribute to ‘creeping’ – and thus unaccountable - privatisation of the NHS.

ISBN: 0026-7961

E Descheemaeker, 'Three Keys to Defamation: Media 24 in a Comparative Perspective' (2013) 130 South African Law Journal 435 [...]

A note on the case of Media 24 v SA Taxi Securitisation (437/2010) [2011] ZASCA 117 in the South African Supreme Court of Appeal. Are considered the following issues that pertain to actions on defamation or iniuria: the nature of the injury suffered by the claimant, the problem of consequential loss, a juridical person’s title to sue, and ‘declaration of falsity’ as a possible remedy. The law of South Africa in relation to these issues is examined against the background of Roman and English law.

D Awrey, 'Toward a Supply-side Theory of Financial Innovation' (2013) 41:2 Journal of Comparative Economics 401

Hugh Beale and WG Ringe, 'Transfer of Rights and Obligations Under DCFR and CESL: Interactions with English and German Law' (2013) Oxford Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17/2013 [...]

The rules on assignment and transfer of rights and obligations are currently outside the scope of the proposed CESL. In contrast, the original DCFR from 2009 includes a chapter on these issues. Questions outside the scope of CESL are left to be solved by the ‘domestic’ provisions of the national law that is applicable under the relevant conflict-of-laws provisions. This paper is part of the larger CFR Context research project and explores interactions of the system of assignment of receivables under a future European contract instrument with both English and German national laws. This concerns above all other areas of law, for example the rules that apply upon the insolvency of one of the parties (in particular that of the assignor) and the rules on public policy. Key differences between the jurisdictions include, inter alia, the proprietary aspects of the assignor’s insolvency where the assignor is paid by the debtor, the priority rule for competing assignments, and the effects of a non-assignment clause. Here, the choice of the optional instrument rather than either English or German law will lead to diverging results and may therefore prejudice any of the parties involved.

R Bird, 'Trends in legal education and the legal profession: comparative perspectives' (2013) 13 Legal Information Management 162 [...]

DOI: 10.1017/S1472669613000406

Legal education in each jurisdiction varies in the requirements of lawyers. It uses tables to outline requirements for local and foreign law graduates to study law, and the bodies which regulate legal education. Covers Australia, Canada, England, Scotland, Nthern Ireland,New Zealand and US.

ISBN: 1472-6696

J Vidmar, 'Unilateral Secession in a Multipolar World' (2013) 107 Proceedings of the American Society of International Law 215

R Ekins, 'Updating the Meaning of Violence' (2013) 129 Law Quarterly Review 17

A Ezrachi and J Thanassoulis, 'Upstream Horizontal Mergers and (the Absence of) Retail Price Effects' (2013) Journal of Competition Law and Economics (forthcoming) [...]

The paper explores the retail price effects of upstream and mid stream horizontal mergers. It questions the prevailing assumption in merger review according to which such transactions will have similar effects on retail price as that of downstream horizontal mergers. The analysis illustrates how a sophisticated profit-maximizing merged entity may find it more profitable to enter into efficient contracts which seek to maximise the profit of the distribution channel, and so ensure that retail prices are not raised. The merged entity uses its market power and improved bargaining position to extract as much of that profit as possible from the retailer. We therefore argue that one cannot simply assume a direct link between the creation of market power upstream following a merger transaction, and the subsequent increase in retail prices. An analysis of the effects of upstream mergers on retail prices should call for a more nuanced appraisal which distinguishes the transfer of wealth within the operators in the distribution chain from the possible price impacts on final consumers.

ISBN: 1744-6414

D P Nolan, 'Varying the Standard of Care in Negligence' (2013) 72 Cambridge Law Journal 651

J Roberts and Marie Manikis, 'Victim Personal Statements: Latest (and last) Trends from the Witnesses and Victims Experience Survey in England and Wales' (2013) Criminology and Criminal Justice

R Williams, 'Voluntary intoxication – A lost cause?' (2013) Law Quarterly Review 264 [...]

The article argues that there are two key problems with the current law concerning voluntary intoxication. First, the rules applicable so-called crimes of basic intent, contrary to some of the more recent case law, can in fact only apply coherently to reckless result crimes. Second, given the differences between the threshold for liability for sober defendants and the threshold for liability for voluntarily intoxicated defendants, the current rules amount in cases of basic intent to criminalisation of the intoxication itself. If this is to be the case, the article argues that the law should take this approach openly, so that in any case where the defendant lacks mens rea as a result of voluntary intoxication (s)he should be convicted instead of a new statutory offence of 'committing the actus reus of offence X while intoxicated', which could also apply coherently to all offences.

T Khaitan, '\'Constitution\' as a Statutory Term' (2013) 129 Law Quarterly Review 589 [...]

There are at least fifteen statutes which use the term 'constitution' or its cognates to refer to the constitution of the United Kingdom (or that of England or Scotland, before the political union of these countries). Of these fifteen pieces of legislation, two date back to the 17th century, one was enacted in the 18th century, another in the 19th century, and one more between 1900 and 1995. In the seventeen years since 1996, at least ten statutes making explicit references to the British constitution have entered the statute books. In this article, I categorise these statutory references to the British constitution, and point to some important legal and constitutional implications of such references.

ISBN: 0023-933X

P P Craig, '‘A General Law on Administrative Procedure, Legislative Competence and Judicial Competence ' (2013) 9 European Public Law 503

M Lee, C Armeni, J de Cendra, S Chaytor, S Lock, M Maslin, Y and others, '‘Public Participation and Climate Change Infrastructure ' (2013) 25 (1) Oxford Journals 33 [...]

This article explores the space for public participation during the consenting process for a nationally significant wind energy or carbon capture and storage infrastructure project. Legal obligations to provide opportunities for public involvement in these processes can be found in national, EU and international law. However, an examination of strategic planning policy suggests that in practice, very little will be up for discussion at this stage. This is consistent with a certain mistrust of the public in high-level policy discourse on the technological change thought necessary for climate change mitigation. Legally entrenched rights to participate, coupled with limited opportunities to influence, create the danger that participation becomes a simple bureaucratic hurdle, frustrating for all concerned.

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