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Roman Law — Overview

News

Eighth International Roman Law Moot

The Eighth International Roman Law Moot Court Competition was held on the Bay of Naples from 15 to 18 April 2015, amidst the splendour of Vico Equense’s Castello Giusso and the evocative grandeur of the Terme Stabiane in the archaeological site of Pompeii – a rare and special privilege secured through the tenacious efforts of hosts Professor Carla Masi Doria, Professor Cosimo Cascione and Dr Natale Rampazzo of the Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II […]

7th International Roman Law Moot

The International Roman Law Moot Court Competition returned to Oxford for its seventh instalment in 2014 […]

Publications

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Journal Articles

2014

A J B Sirks, 'A note on the methodology in Seeck’s Regesten' (2014) 82 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 47 [...]

When reconstructing the sources of the Theodosian Code, it is useful to put the thesis, that local archives were used, to the test and reconstruct such a local archive on the basis of the addressee. It appears in the provided example that the letters must have been taken from the imperial copybook of outgoing letters. Further, Seeck reconstructed sometimes the place where a text was issued on basis of the itinerary of the emperor. In the example taken, it appears that Seeck was rather casual in his assumptions on the speed the emperor traveled or could have traveled and that another route, which would necessitate less emendations, is also possible. His Regesten show in this respect a critical weakness.


A J B Sirks, 'Causae adquirendi eius quod nostrum non sit (D. 41, 2,3,21): rechtmäßiger Eigenbesitz?' (2014) 82 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 209 [...]

The thesis that the causae adquirendi in D. 41,2,3,21 lead first of all to a ‘rechtmäßiger Eigenbesitz’ (justified possession) and not to ownership or acquisitive possession, as formulated by Pool, does appear not to hold upon examination of this text. The key text D. 41,4,2,1 on which his thesis that the title pro emptore implies such possession relies,does not imply more than factual possession. The causae of D. 41,2,3,21 refer, as the causa in D. 41,4,2,1 and other places, to the causa antecedens, the reason for the taking of possession.


2013

A J B Sirks, 'Furtum and manus / potestas' (2013) 81 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 465 [...]

The nature of furtum has been subjected to various interpretations, often with the assumption that this changed between the Twelve Tables and end of the 2nd century AD. It is submitted here that the delict was originally an intrusion upon the power of the pater familias and in its most acute form (furtum manifestum) punished with a religious sanction, viz. declaring the fur sacer. The same sanction is found in the Twelve Tables for other delicts, connected with the power of the pater familias. Since manifest furtum always implied that the fur was caught red handed, desacralisation of the delict led to a reduction of this to mere being caught in the act.


ISBN: ISSN 0040-7585

A J B Sirks, 'Noxa caput sequitur' (2013) 81 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 81 [...]

Generally it is assumed that caput in the phrase noxa caput sequitur refers to the delinquent slave or filius familias. The liability for the delict is attached to his person. It is argued, however, that caput refers to the pater familias of the deliquent. The Twelve Tables contained a rule on their direct and personal liability (with surrender to the autorities). The introduction of the edicts on furtum and the lex Aquilia, with the direct and exclusive liability of the pater familias for the wrongdoings of those, subjected to his potestas, led to a correction: the pater could now refuse to defend them and surrender them to the authorities, or engage in the process, with afterwards still the possibility to surrender, now to the plaintiff. The phrase as such refers then to the inclusion of the decemviral rule on liability of persons, subjected to patria potestas, into the formulas for the delicts.


ISBN: ISSN 0040-7585

2012

A J B Sirks, 'Did poverty lie at the origin of the Colonate?' (2012) 36 Koinonia 133 [...]

The colonate must have been a public law contract which assured poor people that their poll tax would be paid, but for which they tied themselves to an estate. It was essentially already an institution in 293/4 AD.


ISBN: 0393-2230

A J B Sirks, 'The purpose of the lex Fufia Caninia' (2012) 129 Zeitschrift der Savigny-Stiftung Rom. Abt. 549 [...]

The lex Fufia Caninia set limits to testamentary enfranchisement. It is suggested that this was done to reserve for the heir as manumitter a sizable amount of claims on inheritances of his inherited slaves.


2011

A J B Sirks, 'The Slave Who Was Slain Twice: Causality and the lex Aquilia (Iul. 38 dig. D. 9, 2, 51)' (2011) 79 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 313–351 [...]

D. 9,2,51, in which a slave is slain twice and dies, and where Julian considers both assailants equally liable for killing, has been interpreted in the context of causa superveniens. In that case Julian’s opinion becomes contradictory. It is argued that the text should be read in the context of the Stoic theories on causality as current among the jurists in the first centuries AD. In these theories there existed no causa superveniens as of the modern causality theory. As such its application is ill at place here. Instead, in applying these Stoic theories Julian’s view can be explained as his attributing a causa antecedens to the first assailant, with full imputation of the effect of the subsequent causa principalis to him, and attributing a causa adiuvans to the second assailant, while valuing at the same time the latter not just as a reinforcing cause but also as a causa mortis and a full effective cause. For other jurists the latter evidently went too far.


ISBN: ISSN 0040-7585

2009

A J B Sirks, 'The delictual origin, penal nature and reipersecutory object of the actio damni iniuriae legis Aquiliae' (2009) 77 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 303 [...]

It is commonly assumed that the litis aestimatio of the actio legis Aquiliae was a penalty which, in practice, was set at the loss suffered by the victim of the wrong and therefore functioned as compensation. This assumption is based on the nature of the action as founding in a delict and characterised by the Romans as a penal action. It also shares the elements of penal actions. But this is at odds with other texts which treat the action as directed purely at compensation. It is suggested that in order to understand this we have to distinguish between the origin of the penal actions, which is penal and which carries certain common features such as the fundamental impossibility to sue heirs or descendants of the wrongdoer, and their purpose or object. It is possible to distinguish two groups, one aiming at a penalty, the other aiming at compensation. Only in the latter group the action can be exercised against the heir of the wrongdoer and only restrictedly: it is the compensatory aim which allows for this. Further, the lex Aquilia and its chapters are examined whether a compensatory purpose is distinguishable here as well.


ISBN: ISSN 0040-7585

2008

A J B Sirks, 'Laesio enormis again' (2008) 54 Revue Internationale des Droits de l’Antiquité 3e s. 461

Books

2014

A J B Sirks, Nova ratione. Change of paradigms in Roman law (B. Sirks, Harrassowitz Philippika 2014) (forthcoming)

Chapters

2015

A J B Sirks, 'Das Recht der Soldatenkaiser' in Ulrike Babusiaux, Anne Kolb (eds), Das Recht der ‘Soldatenkaiser’. Rechtliche Stabilität in Zeiten politischen Umbruchs? (De Gruyter, Berlin 2015)

A J B Sirks, 'The Theodosian Project and the Lex Citandi' in A. Padoa  Schioppa, D. Mantovani (eds), Interpretare il Digesto. Storia e metodi (IUSS Press, Pavia 2015)

2013

A J B Sirks, 'Mommsen und der Codex Theodosianus' in I. Fargnoli (ed), ( 2013) (forthcoming) [...]

How reliable is Mommsen's edition of the Theodosian Code? Is there any ground for a new edition, where the books 1 to 5 are restored in the way Krüger endeavoured in his edition? The conclusion is that Mommsen's edition is reliable though in need of some improvement in some places, but that a reconstruction as envisaged by Krüger is too unreliable.


A J B Sirks, 'Mommsen und der Codex Theodosianus' in I. Fargnoli, S. Rebenich (eds), Theodor Mommsen und die Bedeutung des Römischen Rechts (Duncker und Humblot 2013) [...]

An analysis of Mommsen's edition of the Codex Theodosianus. It is submitted by way of a 'Gedankenexperiment' that Krueger's idea of reconstructing the Books 1 to 5 is not scholarly feasible; further, that the manuscript Parisinus 9634 deserves a re-edition.


S Vogenauer, 'Lenel and Daube: a Cross-channel Friendship' in A Burrows, D Johnston and R Zimmermann (eds), Judge and Jurist: Essays in Memory of Lord Rodger of Earlsferry (OUP 2013) [...]

pp 277-96. This contribution explores the relationship between two outstanding Roman law scholars, Otto Lenel and David Daube, on the basis of their correspondence in 1933 and 1934. It also discusses the influence of Daube on Alan Rodger.


2012

A J B Sirks, 'Observations on the Theodosian Code: Where did the compilers take their texts from and what did they do with them?' in S. Crogiez-Pétrequin, P. Jaillette (eds), Société, économie et administration dans le Code Théodosien (Septentrion, Villeneuve d’Asque 2012)

A J B Sirks, 'The Supreme Court of Holland and Zeeland judging cases in the early 18th century' in P. Brand, J. Getzler (eds), Judges and Judging in the History of the Common and Civil Law: From Antiquity to Modern Times (Cambridge University Press 2012) [...]

The article sets out the structure and modus operandi of the Supreme Court of Holland and Zeeland, and next, by analysing four cases from the 18th century, the substantive law applied. This was Roman law, except when there was a statute, particular local law or customary law applicable


2010

A J B Sirks, 'Einiges zum prekarischen Besitz' in H. Altmeppen, I. Reichard, M.J. Schermaier (eds), Festschrift für Rolf Knütel zum 70. Geburtstag (C.F. Müller 2010) [...]

Abstract: It is argued that precarium was not developed as instrument to grant common land.

ISBN: 3811439200

A J B Sirks, 'Peira 45.11, a presumed succession pact, and the Peira as legal source' in (Jahrbuch der österreichischen Byzantinistik 2010) [...]

Peira 45.11 has been interpreted as a succession pact, but it appears it is merely the application of a divisio parentis inter liberos (Nov. 18.7). This shows, as other examples, that in the 11th century Justinianic Roman law was still the standard in Byzance for judging, and did not have become, as has also been sustained, a rhetoric device amongst others. This means that the Peira, a collection of 11th century judgments, is a serious legal source.


ISBN: 0378-8660

1998

J S Getzler, 'Roman Ideas of Landownership' in S Bright and J Dewar (eds), Land Law: Themes and Perspectives (Oxford University Press, Oxford 1998)

0

A J B Sirks, 'The Senatus Consultum Claudianum in 438 and after in the west' in K. Muscheler (ed), Römische Jurisprudenz — Dogmatik, Überlieferung, Rezeption. Festschrift für Detlef Liebs zum 75. Geburtstag (Dunkler & Humblot, Feiburger Rechtsgeschichtlicher Abhandlungen 0) [...]

The SC Claudianum was still applied, be it in a reduced form, in the states which succeeded the Roman empire in the west, as appears from the formularies used there. Further, the title on the SC in the Theodosian Code is analysed in its entierety as a coherent compilation.


Presentation/Conference contributions

0

A J B Sirks, 'Contractus e contrahere', paper presented at Atti del Convegno internazionale di diritto romano 2010 Copanello (forthcoming) [...]

What was the original meaning of contractus? it is argued, on basis of linguistic and philosophical arguments, that it designated originally a unilateral subjective legal act, which during the second century was reinterpreted, by way of the conventio-concept, as a bilateral legal act.


Reviews

2013

A J B Sirks, 'R.M. Frakes, Compiling the Collatio Legum Mosaicarum et Romanarum in Late Antiquity, Oxford 2011, ISBN 978–0–19–958940–1 [Oxford studies in Roman society and law 2]' (2013) 81 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 284

2008

A J B Sirks, 'L. Atzeri, Gesta senatus Romani de Theodosiano publicando. Il Codice Teodosiano e la sua diffusione ufficiale in Occidente, Berlin 2008' (2008) 76 Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 251

0

A J B Sirks, 'Martin Avenarius, Der pseudo-ulpianische liber singularis regularum. Entstehung, Eigenart und Überlieferung einer hochklassischen Juristenschrift. Analyse, Neuedition und deutsche Übersetzung, Göttingen 2005' Gnomon 325

Courses

The courses we offer in this field are:

Undergraduate

Law Moderations (Phase I)

Law Moderations are preliminary examinations in Criminal Law, Constitutional Law, and Roman Law, taken at the end of the second term in the first year of the BA. Students must pass them in order to continue in the BA; the degree is awarded on the basis of the FHS Examinations.

A Roman Introduction to Private Law

This subject is an introduction to legal concepts and legal thought, which for centuries have been directly influenced by Roman Law. The course therefore shows where many of the ideas which we take for granted have come from. The course is based on primary materials, the set texts from Gaius (second century AD) and Justinian (sixth century AD). Contact with primary materials is one of the great merits of the study of law. It allows the mind to form its own judgments, freed from second-hand opinions. The texts are studied in translation. No Latin is needed, nor is Latin an advantage.

The course has five sections: I. Sources of Law and the Scheme of the Institutes; II. Property; III. Obligations (A) Contract, (B) Delict (Tort); IV. Influence of Roman Law.

There are lecture courses on each section, distributed across Michaelmas Term and Hilary Term. There are also tutorials arranged by your college tutor. Within this structure it is possible to introduce most of the principal concepts and distinctions which are still of importance in modern private law. The two great categories, property and obligations, comprehend most of the private law encountered in ordinary life and legal practice. The first and last sections provide an opportunity to see how enormously influential the Institutes and the Digest have been in the western legal tradition and introduce, from a comparative perspective, the principal kinds of law-making, namely legislation and interpretation.

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FHS - Final Year (Phase III)

The degree is awarded on the basis of nine final examinations at the end of the three-year course (or four years in the case of Law with Law Studies in Europe) and (for students who began the course in October 2011 or later) an essay in Jurisprudence written over the summer vacation at the end of the second year. Note: the Jurisprudence exam at the end of the third year is correspondingly shorter. This phase of the Final Honour School includes the first and second term of the final year; the Final Examinations are taken in the third term of the final year.

Roman Law (Delict)

The Roman Law option focuses on set texts from the Institutes and Digest. Its primary aim is to understand those texts and the ideas and methods of the great Roman jurists who wrote them. The secondary aim is, by comparison, to throw light on the law of our own time. It caters for the interests of those who are interested in making use of their classical background or of developing the knowledge of Roman law they have acquired by taking the ‘A Roman Introduction to Private Law’ course in Law Moderations, although it is not essential to have done the Roman Law course for Mods. It allows students to study in some detail the outlook and methods of reasoning of the classical jurists who provide the models on which professional legal argument has ever since been based. In practice this will lead to discuss fundamentals of the law of delicts/torts, aided by the comparison with English cases.

The lectures are based, so far as the Roman law is concerned, on the set texts, in English translation. Indeed, one of the advantages of this course from the point of view of students is that the body of relevant texts and other authoritative material is more limited than it is in most, perhaps all, the other options. It is possible to concentrate on detail. In the examination candidates are required to comment on selections from the set translated texts and on questions regarding the literature given for the texts. Knowledge of Latin is not required or necessary, sensitivity for the philological aspects of the originals, when relevant, is. Much literature will quote Latin phrases but it practice this should not cause problems; for fully cited texts either the translation is present in the set texts or it is separately provided.

By its nature this course attracts and is suitable for only small numbers. This fact tends to dissolve the distinction between tutorials and lectures. However, it remains true that the backbone of the course is an exposition of the set texts, supported by further lectures on associated topics.

Diploma in Legal Studies

Roman Law (Delict)

The Roman Law option focuses on set texts from the Institutes and Digest. Its primary aim is to understand those texts and the ideas and methods of the great Roman jurists who wrote them. The secondary aim is, by comparison, to throw light on the law of our own time. It caters for the interests of those who are interested in making use of their classical background or of developing the knowledge of Roman law they have acquired by taking the ‘A Roman Introduction to Private Law’ course in Law Moderations, although it is not essential to have done the Roman Law course for Mods. It allows students to study in some detail the outlook and methods of reasoning of the classical jurists who provide the models on which professional legal argument has ever since been based. In practice this will lead to discuss fundamentals of the law of delicts/torts, aided by the comparison with English cases.

The lectures are based, so far as the Roman law is concerned, on the set texts, in English translation. Indeed, one of the advantages of this course from the point of view of students is that the body of relevant texts and other authoritative material is more limited than it is in most, perhaps all, the other options. It is possible to concentrate on detail. In the examination candidates are required to comment on selections from the set translated texts and on questions regarding the literature given for the texts. Knowledge of Latin is not required or necessary, sensitivity for the philological aspects of the originals, when relevant, is. Much literature will quote Latin phrases but it practice this should not cause problems; for fully cited texts either the translation is present in the set texts or it is separately provided.

By its nature this course attracts and is suitable for only small numbers. This fact tends to dissolve the distinction between tutorials and lectures. However, it remains true that the backbone of the course is an exposition of the set texts, supported by further lectures on associated topics.

Postgraduate

BCL

Our taught postgraduate programme, designed to serve outstanding law students from common-law backgrounds

Roman Law (Delict) (not offered in 2014-15)

The Roman Law option focuses on set texts from the Institutes and Digest. Its primary aim is to understand those texts and the ideas and methods of the great Roman jurists who wrote them. The secondary aim is, by comparison, to throw light on the law of our own time. It caters for the interests of those who are interested in making use of their classical background or of developing the knowledge of Roman law they have acquired by taking the ‘A Roman Introduction to Private Law’ course in Law Moderations, although it is not essential to have done the Roman Law course for Mods. It allows students to study in some detail the outlook and methods of reasoning of the classical jurists who provide the models on which professional legal argument has ever since been based. In practice this will lead to discuss fundamentals of the law of delicts/torts, aided by the comparison with English cases. The lectures are based, so far as the Roman law is concerned, on the set texts, in English translation. Indeed, one of the advantages of this course from the point of view of students is that the body of relevant texts and other authoritative material is more limited than it is in most, perhaps all, the other options. It is possible to concentrate on detail. In the examination candidates are required to comment on selections from the set translated texts and on questions regarding the literature given for the texts. Knowledge of Latin is not required or necessary, sensitivity for the philological aspects of the originals, when relevant, is. Much literature will quote Latin phrases but it practice this should not cause problems; for fully cited texts either the translation is present in the set texts or it is separately provided.

There will be seven seminars in Michaelmas Term, on quasi-delict, furtum and the lex Aquilia, and eight in Hilary Term on the lex Aquila, noxal liability and iniuria. Students will be offered four tutorials, to be arranged by their college tutors.

This subject cannot be taken by an Oxford graduate who has offered Roman Law in the Final Honour School.

The Roman and Civilian Law of Contracts (not offered in 2014-15)

The purpose of the course is to study the Roman Law of Contracts in detail, particularly the Law of Sale, and to examine, subsequently, on this basis, doctrinal and philosophical aspects of the Civilian law on contracts as it developed from ca. 1100 AD till the middle of the 19th century, with where possible a comparison with and excursus into English law.

The course is structured as follows: 1. General I. 2. General II: conditions, error, performance 3. Contractus litteris, Contractus re (loan for consumption [mutuum], loan for use [commodatum], deposit [depositum]). 4. Sale I: general, price, price must be certain, price must be real; the object (res); emptio spei and emptio rei speratae, res extra commercium, sale of goods of third party, sale of purchaser’s own thing, sale of debts; pacts. 5. Sale II: duties of the seller, duty to tranfer property, duty to deliver possession, latent defects, damages for non-delivery. 6. Sale III: transfer of possession/property, passing of risk, eviction. 7. Mandate, Partnership. 8. Contractus verbis: the stipulation, use of writing. With every sub-subject point of departure are the relevant Roman texts, with subsequently mediaeval and later commentaries, which will show how the texts were interpreted and eventually adapted to contemporary use. Out of the mass of commentaries several important and influential ones are chosen (like Bartolus, Voet). For application cases of the Roman-Dutch jurisdiction will also be chosen, which is still present as South-African law. In view that we rely basically on English translations (exception: Wolff in a French translation), much attention will be given to the basic texts (Digest) and the 17th and 18th century authors who have been translated.

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MJur

Our taught postgraduate programme, designed to serve outstanding law students from civil law backgrounds.

Roman Law (Delict) (not offered in 2014-15)

The Roman Law option focuses on set texts from the Institutes and Digest. Its primary aim is to understand those texts and the ideas and methods of the great Roman jurists who wrote them. The secondary aim is, by comparison, to throw light on the law of our own time. It caters for the interests of those who are interested in making use of their classical background or of developing the knowledge of Roman law they have acquired by taking the ‘A Roman Introduction to Private Law’ course in Law Moderations, although it is not essential to have done the Roman Law course for Mods. It allows students to study in some detail the outlook and methods of reasoning of the classical jurists who provide the models on which professional legal argument has ever since been based. In practice this will lead to discuss fundamentals of the law of delicts/torts, aided by the comparison with English cases. The lectures are based, so far as the Roman law is concerned, on the set texts, in English translation. Indeed, one of the advantages of this course from the point of view of students is that the body of relevant texts and other authoritative material is more limited than it is in most, perhaps all, the other options. It is possible to concentrate on detail. In the examination candidates are required to comment on selections from the set translated texts and on questions regarding the literature given for the texts. Knowledge of Latin is not required or necessary, sensitivity for the philological aspects of the originals, when relevant, is. Much literature will quote Latin phrases but it practice this should not cause problems; for fully cited texts either the translation is present in the set texts or it is separately provided.

There will be seven seminars in Michaelmas Term, on quasi-delict, furtum and the lex Aquilia, and eight in Hilary Term on the lex Aquila, noxal liability and iniuria. Students will be offered four tutorials, to be arranged by their college tutors.

This subject cannot be taken by an Oxford graduate who has offered Roman Law in the Final Honour School.

The Roman and Civilian Law of Contracts (not offered in 2014-15)

The purpose of the course is to study the Roman Law of Contracts in detail, particularly the Law of Sale, and to examine, subsequently, on this basis, doctrinal and philosophical aspects of the Civilian law on contracts as it developed from ca. 1100 AD till the middle of the 19th century, with where possible a comparison with and excursus into English law.

The course is structured as follows: 1. General I. 2. General II: conditions, error, performance 3. Contractus litteris, Contractus re (loan for consumption [mutuum], loan for use [commodatum], deposit [depositum]). 4. Sale I: general, price, price must be certain, price must be real; the object (res); emptio spei and emptio rei speratae, res extra commercium, sale of goods of third party, sale of purchaser’s own thing, sale of debts; pacts. 5. Sale II: duties of the seller, duty to tranfer property, duty to deliver possession, latent defects, damages for non-delivery. 6. Sale III: transfer of possession/property, passing of risk, eviction. 7. Mandate, Partnership. 8. Contractus verbis: the stipulation, use of writing. With every sub-subject point of departure are the relevant Roman texts, with subsequently mediaeval and later commentaries, which will show how the texts were interpreted and eventually adapted to contemporary use. Out of the mass of commentaries several important and influential ones are chosen (like Bartolus, Voet). For application cases of the Roman-Dutch jurisdiction will also be chosen, which is still present as South-African law. In view that we rely basically on English translations (exception: Wolff in a French translation), much attention will be given to the basic texts (Digest) and the 17th and 18th century authors who have been translated.

.


People

Roman Law teaching is organized by a Subject Group convened by:

Joshua Getzler: Professor of Law and Legal History

in conjunction with:

Alexandra Braun: Associate Professor of Law
John Cartwright: Professor of the Law of Contract
Peter Clarke: Retired. Formerly Lecturer
Andrew Dickinson: Fellow and Tutor, St Catherine's College
Simon Douglas: Associate Professor of Law
Nancy Eisenhauer: College Lecturer
Stefan Enchelmaier: Professor of European and Comparative Law
James Goudkamp: Associate Professor of Law
Louise Gullifer: Professor of Commercial Law
Jeffrey Hackney: Retired. Formerly Fellow and Tutor in Law at Wadham and St Edmund Hall
Mike Macnair: Associate Professor of Law
Andrew McLeod: Research Fellow
Rodrigo Momberg Uribe: Career Development Fellow in Comparative Law
Luke Rostill: Supernumerary Teaching Fellow in Law
Luke Rostill: Supernumerary Teaching Fellow in Law
Boudewijn Sirks: Emeritus Emeritus Regius Professor of Civil Law
Roger Smith: Associate Professor of Law
Benjamin Spagnolo: Penningtons Student (Fellow) and Tutor in Law
Sandy Steel: Associate Professor of Law

assisted by:

Mikolaj Barczentewicz: MPhil Law student
Robert Bellin: DPhil Law student
Arturo Ibanez Leon: DPhil Law student
James Plunkett: DPhil Law student

Also working in this field, but not involved in its teaching programme:

Tony Honoré: Emeritus Emeritus Regius Professor of Civil Law at All Souls

Graduate students working in this field:

Florentine Stolker: MSt Legal Research student


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