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  • G Dinwoodie, 'Towards an International Framework for the Protection of Traditional Knowledge' in (ed), Elements of National sui Generis Systems for the Preservation, Protection and Promotion of Traditional Knowledge: Innovations and Practices and Options for an International Framework (UNCTAD 2006)
    At a seminar organized by UNCTAD and the Government of India in 2002, participants considered how evolving national systems for the protection of traditional knowledge could be supported or augmented by international measures adopted at the regional or global level. The need for solutions on the international level has been discussed in a number of fora. Yet, the effective protection of the holders of traditional knowledge requires that these discussions move in some way toward implementation of working systems of protection.

    This short paper, commissioned by UNCTAD for a conference in February 2004, and to be republished in a book on traditional knowledge, focuses on framework, or structural, issues, rather than on the substantive elements of sui generis systems for the protection of traditional knowledge. It considers the extent to which proponents must articulate the need for a completely new paradigm, or whether instead they can point to historical antecedents in the intellectual property system.

    The principal impetus for the paper is the proposal of the Indian government that international law require the disclosure of the country of origin of genetic resources and related traditional knowledge in patent applications (and require compliance with the laws of the country of origin). This proposal is essentially an attempt to derogate from the principle of territoriality that pervades and is at the root of, international intellectual property law. That principle is most resolutely advocated and enforced in the patent context. In contrast, international trademark (and geographical indications) law - while firmly based upon the same general principle - has in several respects developed exceptions to that principle. These exceptions might provide the source for a range of options that countries might consider as the model for a system of traditional knowledge protection that likewise moves away from the principle of territoriality. An historical analysis of where resistance to such developments has been most acute in the field of trademark and geographical indications might also provide guidance to those seeking to construct an approach to traditional knowledge that encounters less resistance.

    The paper conceptualizes the different departures from territoriality in trademark law and thus suggests analogous devices for the protection of traditional knowledge that could be developed along the lines suggested by the Indian government. This helps to identify the structural variables that countries should consider in fashioning a traditional knowledge regime that eschews a rigid commitment to territoriality.

  • D S Gangjee, 'Melton Mowbray and the GI Pie in the Sky: Exploring Cartographies of Protection' (2006) Intellectual Property Quarterly 291
  • G Dinwoodie, 'The International Intellectual Property Law System: New Actors, New Institutions, New Sources' (2006) 10 Marquette Intellectual Property Law Review 205
    International intellectual property norms are now being developed by a wide range of institutions - some national, some international, and some that do not fit neatly into either category; by bodies designed to address intellectual property; by trade and other bodies; and by actors public, private, and indeterminate. This new wave of international norm creation not only augments a growing body of substantive norms but also raises difficult structural questions about the future development of the international intellectual property system. This essay, a lecture delivered to the Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law in 2004, is being reprinted as part of a symposium on ?TRIPS after ten years.?
  • G Dinwoodie, 'The Story of Kellogg Co. v. National Biscuit Co.: Breakfast with Brandeis' in (ed), Intellectual Property Stories (Foundation Press 2005)
    Kellogg Co. v. National Biscuit Co. may be the Supreme Court's most versatile and influential trademark decision. Justice Brandeis' opinion contained language that is now at the core of the statutory test for whether a term should be unprotected because consumers understand the term as the generic name for the product on which it is used. That same language guides courts seeking to determine whether a mark has acquired the degree of secondary meaning necessary to support trademark protection. Plaintiffs seeking to establish trademark rights in a product shape must demonstrate that the shape in question is not "functional" according to a standard that has its roots in Kellogg. And defendants seeking to parry claims that the design of their product is confusingly similar to the design of a once-patented product habitually invoke Kellogg to support a competitor's right to copy the subject matter of an expired patent.

    The scope of Kellogg's influence might, at first blush, seem surprising. The Court was confronted by a relatively narrow issue of trademark and unfair competition law, and to a large extent was revisiting an issue it had decided forty years earlier. The Court's opinion was also quite short. To understand its significance, one must be aware of the full range of philosophical reasons that motivated Justice Brandeis, including opposition for broad intellectual property rights, a concern for competition, and support for a misrepresentation-based model of unfair competition law. And one must also delve into the intense commercial rivalry in the cereal industry - a rivalry conducted by an odd mix of evangelists armed with even odder theories about nutrition and health.

    Ultimately, because a variety of rationales were offered by the Court for a conclusion upon which most would agree, the precise scope of the opinion has never been fully clear. These (perhaps purposeful) ambiguities might have prevented the opinion contributing to the clear development of areas of law that were directly addressed by the Kellogg Court. This partially explains the irony that the current Supreme Court has cited Kellogg in a number of trademark cases for a series of different propositions, but did not cite the case in the most recent effort to tackle the very question at issue in Kellogg (the scope of trademark protection for a product covered by an expired patent).

    By the same token, however, Justice Brandeis' quiet efforts to supply a more fundamental (and long-term) statement about the philosophy of trademark and unfair competition law may have allowed the opinion to achieve significance, both judicially and legislatively, well beyond the narrow context of the type of case the Court was deciding. And those efforts to articulate a philosophy for trademark and unfair competition law, which do not spring as obviously from the text of the Kellogg opinion, but instead are more readily apparent from historical context, may also be important in the years ahead as scholars and policymakers consider whether trademark law has inappropriately become a law against misappropriation.

  • G Dinwoodie and R. Dreyfuss, 'WTO Dispute Resolution and the Preservation of the Public Domain of Science Under International Law' in Maskus & Reichman (ed), International Public Goods and Transfer of Technology Under Globalized Intellectual Property Regime (Cambridge Univ. Press 2005)
    The TRIPS Agreement can be read to reflect a static view of the structure of intellectual property law. In this paper, we address whether - and how - the TRIPS Agreement can be interpreted to give it more fluidity, and thus to allow adjustments in national intellectual property regimes designed to reflect the dynamic nature of information production. To focus that inquiry, we concentrate on efforts to ensure a broader public domain for "upstream" inventions by modifying various elements of US patent law. The paper considers three stylized examples and asks whether each approach could be adopted by the United States without falling afoul of the TRIPS Agreement, as it is currently understood. Our purpose is to identify interpretive approaches that allow member states to keep their laws attuned to the developments and needs of science. In so doing, we also raise broader questions regarding the level of formalism generated by the WTO dispute settlement system, and the extent to which the TRIPS Agreement allocates power between supranational and national institutions, and between international and national laws.
  • G Dinwoodie, 'Use, Intent to Use, and Registration in the United States' in (ed), Trademark Use (2005)
  • A Johnston, 'Putting the Cart Before the Horse? Privacy and the Wainwrights' (2004) Cambridge Law Journal 15 [Case Note]
  • A Johnston and A.A. Dashwood, 'The Institutions of the Enlarged EU under the regime of the Constitutional Treaty' (2004) 41 Common Market Law Review 1481
  • G Dinwoodie, 'The International Intellectual Property Law System: New Actors, New Institutions, New Sources' in (ed), Proceedings of the 98th annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law (ASIL 2004)
    International intellectual property norms are now being developed by a wide range of institutions - some national, some international, and some that do not fit neatly into either category; by bodies designed to address intellectual property; by trade and other bodies; and by actors public, private, and indeterminate. This new wave of international norm creation not only augments a growing body of substantive norms but also raises difficult structural questions about the future development of the international intellectual property system. This essay, a lecture delivered to the Annual Meeting of the American Society of International Law in 2004, is being reprinted as part of a symposium on ?TRIPS after ten years.?
  • G Dinwoodie and R. Dreyfuss, 'International Intellectual Property Law and the Public Domain of Science' (2004) 7 Journal of International Economic Law 431
    The TRIPS Agreement can be read to reflect a static view of the structure of intellectual property law. In this paper, we address wither - and how - the TRIPS Agreement can, on the other hand, be read with more fluidity, and thus to allow adjustments in national intellectual property regimes designed to reflect the the dynamic nature of information production. To focus that inquiry, we concentrate on efforts to ensure a broader public domain for 'upstream' inventions by modifying various elements of US patent law. The paper considers three stylized examples and asks whether each approach could be adopted by the United States without falling afoul of the TRIPS Agreement as it is currently understood. Our purpose is to identify interpretive approaches that allow member states to keep their laws attuned to the development and needs of science. But in so doing, we also raise broader questions regarding the level of formalism generated by the WTO dispute settlement system, and the extent to which the TRIPS Agreement allocates power between supranational and national institutions, and between international and national laws.
  • G Dinwoodie, 'Private Ordering and the Creation of International Copyright Norms: The Role of Public Structuring' (2004) 160 Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics 161
    International copyright law must be based on an assessment of what types and levels of protection best further the purposes of copyright law. But constructing the international copyright regime is difficult as the international system must wrestle with copyright dilemmas that exist at the national level as well as broader challenges facing international law. This paper delineates the connection between international copyright law and the generation and distribution of knowledge by discussing two recent examples of (possible) unconventional international copyright rulemaking, namely, norms generated by Internet Service Providers in responding to infringement claims, and norms arising out of digital rights management systems (JEL: K 29).
  • G Dinwoodie, 'Trademarks and Territory: Detaching Trademark Law from the Nation-State' (2004) 41 Houston Law Review 885
    It is an axiomatic principle of domestic and international trademark law that trademarks and trademark law are territorial. This paper critiques the principle of territoriality in four ways. First, I suggest that statements about trademark territoriality mask a variety of related propositions. In disaggregating the "principle of territoriality" into its component parts, it becomes apparent that different rules of trademark law possess a territorial character for different reasons. For example, common law trademark rights are territorial because the intrinsic purpose of trademark law suggests extending (and limiting) rights to the geographic reach of goodwill. In contrast, registration systems designed to promote economic expansion derive their territorial character from their grounding in economic policymaking, effected by institutions that focus on the regulation or development of discrete economic regions. And rules regarding the enforcement of trademark rights assume their territorial quality because of their connection to political institutions with territorially defined sovereignty. Thus, some aspects of territoriality are rooted in social and commercial practices that dictate the reach of a brand, while other aspects are a function of political or policymaking authority. In an era of global trade and digital communication, social and commercial practices are less territorially confined and less commensurate with the nation-state. But economic policymaking and political institutions may prove more resistant to change than social or commercial behavior.

    Second, I argue that although the principle of trademark territoriality has nominally remained constant since the conclusion of the Paris Convention, recent developments at both the national and international level suggest that the principle may have a different intensity today. Third, the paper begins an investigation of the ways in which the principle of territoriality should be revisited in light of the globalization of markets and concomitant changes in modern marketing practices. Although the multidimensional nature of the territoriality principle suggests that an overarching reconfiguration would be unwise and perhaps impossible, some shared dilemmas can be derived from analysis of discrete rules. If the territorial character of a rule reflects the intrinsic purpose of trademark law and is thus rooted in social practices that are already in flux, the character of these doctrines will almost inevitably mutate as the notion of territoriality evolves in line with social change. Such revisions will swim with the current of socially constructed territoriality. If, however, the territoriality of a doctrine instead mirrors the national nature of economic and political institutions, then efforts to revise the doctrines will first require altering the underlying institutional and policymaking apparatus. Moreover, in deciding whether particular territorial aspects of trademark law warrant reassessment, it is important to consider whether trademark law should be structured reactively to protect whatever consumer understandings or producer goodwill develops, or should it instead proactively seek to shape the ways in which consumers shop and producers sell or seek to acquire rights, thus shaping how the economy functions?

    Finally, the paper briefly highlights the extent to which there is, or should be, an assimilation of the "territorial" and the "national." Analysis of the choices facing trademark law might be better achieved by consciously separating nationality and territoriality. Recognition of the territoriality of goodwill is linked to the basic purposes of trademark law, while nationality-grounded doctrines are more likely driven by economic policy and by institutional issues such as the practical demands of current political structures. Recognizing this distinction would assist in highlighting where reform is likely to be evolutionary and where modification of political structures - whether judicial or administrative - must first occur.

  • G Dinwoodie and M. Janis, Trademarks and Unfair Competition: Law & Policy (Aspen Publishers Inc. 2004)
  • G Dinwoodie and R. Dreyfuss, 'TRIPs and the Dynamics of Intellectual Property Lawmaking' (2004) 36 Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law 95

    In prior work, we took up the question of the TRIPs Agreement's resilience to changes in domestic law. We argued that such resilience is necessary because information production is a dynamic enterprise. As new industries emerge and mature, nations must have the flexibility to modify their intellectual property rules to readjust the balance between public and private rights. In the course of that study, we examined approaches to TRIPs dispute resolution that could cabin the choices of legislation available to deal with emergent substantive problems, and which could distort the legal environment in which creative enterprises are conducted. In this piece, we continue our consideration of the resilience of the Agreement and its commitment to neo-federalism. Here, however, we move from a focus on outcomes to the dynamics of the legislative process, examining the extent to which TRIPs dispute resolution adequately accommodates the operation of each member's political economy as it relates to intellectual property lawmaking.

    Frequently, as intellectual property lawmaking becomes fiercely contested, reforms can only occur when a balanced package of rules can be reached. We ask whether such deals (or perhaps which of such deals, depending upon the connection between the reforms) should be taken into account by WTO panels. We argue that when legislation represents offsetting benefits and detriments, respect for domestic political dynamics requires panels to consider constituent pieces of such legislation in the context of the package in which they were enacted.

    In previous work, we questioned whether the jurisprudence that has developed with regard to the GATT's trade provisions should apply equally to intellectual property, noting that differences between trade and intellectual property policy mandated different approaches. Here we reiterate that position, but make something of a converse argument as well: there are commonalities between the problems that nations experience in executing their trade commitments and their intellectual property commitments. Thus, it is significant that in its early years, the GATT incorporated strategies that created flexibility and permitted nations to deal autonomously with matters of domestic trade; we argue that similar mechanisms are required in TRIPs jurisprudence, especially in the Agreement?s formative stage.

    We also focus on the effect that TRIPs, as currently understood, has on domestic lawmaking. If WTO panel decisions intrude more into national law, might lawmakers begin to enact legislation in reliance on international invalidation of whole or parts of the enactment? Should formulation of domestic policy take this into account? Further, would the formalistic approach that has been taken to TRIPs jurisprudence benefit domestic lawmaking by reducing the effect of lobbying? Or would it simply induce more nuanced log-rolling, or the enactment of laws aimed at influencing intellectual property production but under a different legislative rubric (such as food and drug regulation or consumer law)? Indeed, answers to these questions might affect not only lawmaking at the national level but, in turn, the form of WTO dispute settlement. We go so far as to suggest that there may be a role for the (much-feared) nonviolation complaints in navigating these complexities.

  • A Johnston, A.A. Dashwood, C. Hillion and M. Dougan, 'Draft Constitutional Treaty of the European Union and related documents' (2003) 28 European Law Review 3
  • A Johnston, S.F. Deakin and B.S. Markesinis, Markesinis and Deakin’s Tort Law (5th edn Oxford University Press 2003)
    The fifth edition of Markesinis and Deakin's Tort Law has been fully revised and updated to cover all important developments which have occurred in this field since the previous edition appeared in 1999. The structure of the book remains the same as in previous editions, as has its underlying philosophy - to provide a good general overview of the law of tort for students and their lecturers which will also be of interest to practitioners and judges in the field. The book includes discussion of much new material, including important appellate court decisions on wrongful birth, defamation, privacy, nuisance, the liability of public authorities, causation and many others; the growing impact of the Human Rights Act upon tort law, including discussion of many important cases decided since the Act came into force; important recent legislative developments, including the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. Throughout the book the relationship between the common law and legislative policy is a key theme, while economic and comparative analysis of the cases and issues are used where appropriate.
    ISBN: 9780199257126
  • A Johnston, 'Review of: Danny Nicol, EC Membership and the Judicialization of British Politics' (2003) 40 Common Market Law Review 525 [Review]
  • A Johnston, 'Review of: Rex Zedalis, International Energy Law, and Martha Roggenkamp et al, Energy Law in Europe' (2003) 3 Yearbook of European Environmental Law 803 [Review]
  • A Johnston, 'Review of: Diana Woodhouse, The Office of the Lord Chancellor' (2002) Cambridge Law Journal 715 [Review]

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