This paper argues for more nuanced doctrines of deference of judicial review of administrative action. Our focus is deference in the context of statutory interpretation and the judicial application of Chevron U.S.A. Inc. v. Natural Resources Defence Council, Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984). The Chevron doctrine has become a ‘Pole Star’ (Merrill) of US contemporary administrative law, as well as being cited often in the case law and administrative law scholarship of other jurisdictions. The doctrine is usually considered to be a doctrine of statutory interpretation that addresses the limits of administrative authority springing from separation powers logic. We contend that the judicial application of theChevron doctrine should also reflect substantive understandings of expert administration, an understanding that leads to different conclusions about the limits of administrative authority.