Money is an institution engineered by political communities to mark and mobilize resources. As societies change the way they create money, they change the market itself -- along with the rules that structure it, the politics and ideas that shape it, and the benefits that flow from it. One particularly dramatic transformation in money’s design brought capitalism to England. Late in the 17th century, the English government shared its monopoly over money creation for the first time with private investors, accepting as money the notes issued by the Bank of England. That decision institutionalized the self-interested calculations of lenders as the pump that would produce the money supply. A monetary revolution followed, including the promotion of circulating public debt, the breakdown of commodity money, the rise of commercial bank currency, and the coalescence of ideological commitments that came to be identified with the Gold Standard.