Vera Gowlland Debbas is Emeritus Professor of Public International Law at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva and a Visiting Professor at University College London. She has also been a Visiting Fellow at All Souls College, Oxford, and a Visiting Professor at Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, the Institut des Hautes Etudes Internationales, Université Paris II, and the University of California at Berkeley. Her publications include Collective Responses to Illegal Acts in International Law (1990), Law-making in a Globalized World, Bancaja Euromediterranean Courses of International Law (2004-5), and The Security Council as Enforcer of Human Rights, Academy of European Law, Florence, 2009. A forthcoming publication is the course she gave at the Hague Academy of International Law in 2007, on The Security Council and Issues of Responsibility under International Law. She has written also on a wide range of public international law issues, including on the International Court of Justice, human rights and state responsibility. She acted as Counsel for the Arab League in the ICJ Wall Opinion, advises governments, IOs and private law firms and is a Member of the Academic Experts panel at Doughty Street Chambers, London.