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  • H Eidenmüller, 'Prognoseentscheidungen im Insolvenzplanverfahren: Verfahrenslähmung durch Minderheitenschutz?' (1999) Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (NJW) 1837
  • H Eidenmüller, 'Rechtswissenschaft als Realwissenschaft' (1999) Juristenzeitung (JZ) 53
  • S Enchelmaier and B S Markesinis, 'The Applicability of Human Rights as between Individuals under German Constitutional Law' in B S Markesinis (ed), Protecting Privacy (Oxford University Press 1999)
  • P P Craig and G de Burca (eds), The Evolution EU Law (Oxford University Press 1999)
  • S Enchelmaier, 'The New Regulation 659/99 on the Commissions Procedure in State Aid Cases' (1999) European Current Law xi
  • H Eidenmüller, Unternehmenssanierung zwischen Markt und Gesetz: Mechanismen der Unternehmensreorganisation und Kooperationspflichten im Reorganisationsrecht (Otto Schmidt 1999)
  • P P Craig and D Fairgrieve, '‘Barrett, Negligence and Discretionary Powers’ ' (1999) PL 626
  • P P Craig, '‘Competing Models of Judicial Review’ ' (1999) PL 428
  • P P Craig, '‘Constitutionalism, Regulation and Review’' in R Hazell (ed), Constitutional Futures, A History of the Next Ten Years (Hart 1999)
  • P P Craig, '‘EMU, the European Central Bank and Judicial Review’' in P Beaumont and N Walker (eds), Legal Framework of the Single European Currency (Hart 1999)
  • P P Craig and M Walters, '‘The Courts, Devolution and Judicial Review’' (1999) PL 274
  • P P Craig, '‘The European Community, the Crown and the State’' in M Sunkin and S Payne (eds), The Nature of the Crown, A Legal and Political Analysis (Oxford University Press 1999)
  • P P Craig, '‘The Nature of the Community: Integration, Democracy and Legitimacy’' in P Craig and G de Burca (eds), The Evolution of EU Law (Oxford University Press 1999)
  • P P Craig, '‘Unreasonableness and Proportionality in UK Law’' in E Ellis (ed), The Principle of Proportionality in the Laws of Europe (Hart 1999)
  • H Collins, 'Closure and Openness - Reasoning in the Law of Contract and the Social Construction of Markets' in Tanese (ed), Principles of Contract and Practice of Contracts (1999)
  • JA Armour, 'Corporate Personality and Assumption of Responsibility' (1999) Lloyds’ Maritime & Commercial Law Quarterly 246
    ISBN: 0306-2945
  • H Collins, Regulating Contracts (Oxford University Press 1999)
    ISBN: 0199258015
  • G Dinwoodie, 'The Death of Ontology: A Teleological Approach to Trademark Law' (1999) 84 Iowa Law Review 611
    In recent years, U.S. courts have recognized that a wide (and potentially limitless) range of subject matter may act as a trademark. These developments arguably comport both with a contemporary (global) consumer who is less reliant on linguistic forms of communication and with postmodern scholarship regarding the varied sources and development of meaning. This article addresses how trademark law should adapt to the reality that consumers identify and distinguish products using a range of symbols other than the traditional forms of words and pictorial images. I contend that, in order to regulate effectively the present-day marketplace, trademark law must recognize the limitless sources of meaning. But while nontraditional subject-matter may equally identify a product?s source, protecting that nontraditional matter as a trademark may give rise to very different consequences than protecting traditional trademark subject-matter such as words. If ontological restrictions upon trademark subject-matter are removed, a new set of limits must prudently be established if trademark protection is not to spawn adverse competitive effects from overprotection. I suggest that such limits can be found by tethering trademark law directly to its limited purposes, and by grounding protection not in over-generalized assumptions about classes of subject matter, but rather in the real present-day impact of particular symbols in society. The Article explores this (teleological model) through the vehicle of the nontraditional subject-matter generating the most trademark litigation and the most critical thinking, namely, product design features. The article systematizes the growing body of trade dress case law and scholarship and highlights the different premises that I detect underlying divergent schools of thought. I argue that the Supreme Court is cautiously moving, albeit without any express recognition, toward a postmodern vision of marketplace symbols, and that its recent opinions represent an incipient version of the teleological model that I espouse. Finally, I exemplify the operation of the teleological model by applying its lessons to the issue of functionality. Applying the teleological model to various hotly-debated aspects of the functionality doctrine leads me to endorse adoption of a transparent, purposive analysis of "competitive need" as the measure of functionality rather than any single doctrinal formulation. That inquiry, I argue, should be particularized and applied without categorical differentiation between aesthetic and utilitarian features. I also reject the prevailing view that a finding of functionality should foreclose the grant of any relief to a plaintiff producer, finding it insufficiently cognizant of the costs of confusingly similar source-identifying designs in an increasingly visual society. Instead, I propose that courts should explore the possibility of conditioning a defendant's right to copy a functional design on compliance with labeling or other requirements that minimize consumer confusion. Moderating the consequence for plaintiffs of a finding of functionality should embolden courts to apply a rigorous functionality analysis to a greater range of design features. An ontologically unlimited approach to trademark subject-matter sits well with our postmodern condition; but, in order to avoid over-protection, it must be accompanied by a heightened regard for the policy concerns embodied in the functionality doctrine.
  • S Enchelmaier, 'Current Developments: EC Law' (1998) 47 ICLQ 706
  • H Eidenmüller, 'Der Auskunftsanspruch des nichtehelichen Kindes gegen seine Mutter auf Benennung des leiblichen Vaters' (1998) ”, Juristische Schulung (JuS) 789
  • H Eidenmüller, Effizienz als Rechtsprinzip: Möglichkeiten und Grenzen der ökonomischen Analyse des Rechts (2nd edn Mohr Siebeck 1998)
  • TAO Endicott, 'Herbert Hart and the Semantic Sting' (1998) 4 Legal Theory 283
    DOI: 10.1017/S1352325200001038
    An invited contribution to a special issue on Hart’s ‘Postscript’ to The Concept of Law
  • P P Craig and C Harlow (eds), Lawmaking in the European Union (Kluwer 1998)

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