Class Actions/Collective Redress

The team has studied class actions and collective redress across the world since 2004.  There is particularly detailed knowledge of UK and European mechanisms, and a sequence of publications.

A Submission by Prof Hodges and Prof Voet to the European Commission's 2017 Inception Impact Assessment for a Proposal for a Directive on revision of the Injunctions Directive can be found here.

Materials from our December 2016 conference on Empirical Evidence on Collective Redress in Europe are at

Continuous monitoring and analysis is maintained of the development of class and collective actions throughout the world. Work at the Centre particularly focuses on the European Union – at both the national level of the Member States and the EU level. Recent publications are:

C Hodges and N Creutzfeldt, ‘Transformations in Public and Private Enforcement’ in H-W Micklitz and A Wechsler (eds), The Transformation of Enforcement (Hart, 2016).

C Hodges, ‘Collective Redress: A Breakthrough or a Damp Sqibb?’ (2014) 34 Journal of Consumer Policy 67–89; DOI 10.1007/s10603-013-9242-0

C Hodges and A Stadler (eds), Resolving Mass Disputes: ADR and Settlement of Mass Claims (Edward Elgar, 2013).

R Money-Kyrle and C Hodges, ‘European Collective Action: Towards Coherence?’ (2012) 19.4 Maastricht Journal of International and Comparative Law 477-504

C Hodges and R Money-Kyrle, ‘Safeguards in Collective Actions’, FLJS Policy Brief

C Hodges, ‘From Class Actions to Collective Redress’ (2009) Civil Justice Quarterly 28: 1, 41-66.

C Hodges, "The Reforms of Class and Representative Actions in European Legal Systems. A New Framework for Collective Redress in Europe" (Hart, 2008).

A 2016 chapter on the empirical evidence on class actions in USA is: C Hodges, ‘US Class Actions: Promise and Reality’ in H-W Micklitz and A Wechsler (eds), The Transformation of Enforcement (Hart, 2016)

National reports from scholars worldwide on class action laws and national developments are available on the website of Stanford Law School as part of the Global Class Actions Exchange. National reports were also published in "Globalization of Class Actions" (edited by Professor Hensler, Professor Hodges and Dr. Tulibacka) (Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Volume 622, March 2009). Annual meetings have been held since 2007: planned meetings include Miami (2010), the Netherlands (2011) and North America (2012). A collection of case studies of class action cases from across the world compiled by the members of the Global Class Actions Network is

DR Hensler, C Hodges and I Tzankova (eds), Class Actions in Context: How Culture, Economics and Politics Shape Collective Litigation (Edward Elgar, 2016).

Professor Hodges has advised the European Commission Directorate-General on Consumer Affairs (2009), the Irish Law Reform Commission (2005), the Polish Codification Commission (2007), and Hong Kong government (2007) and a number of other governments on the introduction of class or collective mechanisms. Several articles and book chapters have been written on developments across EU Member States and in Brussels, such as the Commission’s Green and White Papers on Damages actions for breach of the EC antitrust rules, and the Consumer Strategy 2007-13. A recent paper is C Hodges' 'Collective Redress in Europe: The New Model' (2010) Civil Justice Quarterly 370. He was invited to contribute the chapter on collective actions to 'The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Legal Research', published by Oxford University Press in 2010 (order form can be found here Prof Hodges spoke on New Technologies for Delivery Collective Redress at a seminar organised by the Swiss Embassy and EJF in Berlin on 26 June 2018, where speakers also included Prof Dr Heribert Hirte, member of the German Parliament  and Dr Otmar Lell, of the German Consumer Association VZBV.

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