Naomi holds a PhD in political science (Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Germany) and a BA and MPCM in International Relations and Public Relations (University of Southern Queensland, Australia). Her doctoral thesis explored the concept of a European public sphere, created by the media, in the United Kingdom, Germany and France. The national and European level discourse of identities and values emerging from the public debate on Turkey’s accession to the EU formed the case study. Naomi is currently at the University of Westminster.


Since 2010 Naomi is working with Christopher Hodges on the Research Programme in European and Comparative Civil Justice Systems, specializing on Alternative Dispute Resolution for consumers in Europe. The co-authored book on Consumer ADR in Europe (Hart 2012) describes in detail the different approaches to dispute resolution and coverage in 10 member states. Research is on-going and aims to cover the remaining countries, in a second volume.

Between October 2013 -2016 Naomi conducted a three year ESRC funded project on: Trusting the middle-man:  impact and legitimacy of Ombudsmen in Europe. 

Naomi is a member of the Law and Society Association (USA), the Socio-Legal Studies Association (UK) and an individual associate member of the Ombudsman Association. Naomi is a member of the executive committee of the SLSA, and on the steering committee of the Foundation for Law, Justice and Society at Wolfson College, and a Fellow of Wolfson College. Naomi is also an  ADR group Accredited Civil & Commercial Mediator.


Naomi is now a Senior Lecturer in law at the University of Westmisnter:

One of her current projects, funded by the ESRC, investigates access to justice for vulberable and energy poor consumers in Europe:


Featured publications

  • Creutzfeldt, 'Ausblick nach Europa: Beispiele aus den Mitgleidstaaten' (2014) 45 Verbraucherpolitik Option Schlichtung – Eine neue Kultur der Konfliktloesung
  • Creutzfeldt, 'Introduction to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) for Consumers in Europe' in Cauffman, Schmits (ed), The citizen in European Private Law: Norm-setting, Enforcement and Choice (Intersentia 2016)

Journal Article (16)

Chris Gill and Creutzfeldt, 'The ‘ombuds watchers’: dissatisfaction, collective dissent, and legal protest amongst users of public service ombuds ' (2017) social and legal studies
This article examines the phenomenon of the ‘ombuds watchers’. These are groups of dissatisfied users of public service ombuds schemes who engage in legal protest against the current system of redress for citizen-state complaints. Through the lens of legal consciousness scholarship we propose a framework that conceptualizes the collectivized protest of the ombuds watchers. Based on an empirical dataset, our analysis shows that the ombuds watchers meet each of the defining characteristics of dissenting collectivism and demonstrates the existence of forms of legal consciousness which present ‘opportunities to build alternative imaginaries and institutions’. Our case study provides an insight into the potential for dissenting collectives to challenge the hegemonic structures of state law, while at the same time emphasising the continuing power of legal ideology in shaping popular understandings of justice. The article also suggests a pathway for future empirical research into user experiences of justice systems.
Id: 9244
Creutzfeldt, 'A voice for change? The trust relationships between ombudsmen, individuals and public service providers’ ' (2016) Journal of social welfare and family law
DOI: DOI: 10.1080/09649069.2016.1239371.
There has been a debate for years about what the role of the ombudsman is. This article examines a key component of the role, to promote trust in public services and government. To be able to do this, however, an ombudsman needs to be perceived as legitimate and be trusted by a range of stakeholders, including the user. This article argues that three key relationships in a person’s complaint journey can build trust in an institution, and must therefore be understood as a system. The restorative justice framework is adapted to conceptualize this trust model as a novel approach to understanding the ombudsman institution from the perspective of its users. Taking two public sector ombudsmen as examples, the paper finds that voice and trust need to be reinforced through the relationships in a consumer journey to manage individual expectations, prevent disengagement, and thereby promote trust in the institution, in public service providers, and in government.
Id: 9246
Creutzfeldt and Berlin, 'ADR in aviation: European and national perspectives ' (2016) Civil Justice Quarterly
Id: 7107
Creutzfeldt, 'Implementation of the consumer ADR directive' (2016) Volume 1 JOURNAL OF EUROPEAN CONSUMER AND MARKET LAW
Id: 7405
Creutzfeldt, 'Vertrauen in außergerichtliche Streitbeilegung' (2016) 1/2016 Zeitschrift für Konfliktmanagement (ZKM)
Id: 7390
Creutzfeldt, 'What do we expect of ombudsmen?' (2016) International Journal of Law in Context
Id: 7109
Creutzfeldt and Ben Bradford, '‘Dispute resolution outside of courts: procedural justice and decision acceptance among users of ombuds services in the UK’' (2016) 50 Law and Society Review 985
Attitudes towards legal authorities based on theories of procedural justice have been explored extensively in the criminal and civil justice systems. This has provided considerable empirical evidence concerning the importance of trust and legitimacy in generating cooperation, compliance and decision acceptance. However, not enough attention has been paid to attitudes towards institutions of informal dispute resolution. This paper asks whether the theory of procedural justice applies to the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) context, focusing on ombuds services. What are the predictors of perceptions of procedural justice during the process of dealing with an ombuds, and what factors shape outcome acceptance? These questions are analyzed using a sample of recent ombuds users. The results indicate that outcome favorability is highly correlated with perceived procedural justice, and both predict decision acceptance.
Id: 9245
Creutzfeldt, 'Ausblick nach Europa: Beispiele aus den Mitgleidstaaten' (2014) 45 Verbraucherpolitik Option Schlichtung – Eine neue Kultur der Konfliktloesung
Id: 7104
Creutzfeldt and Hodges, 'Consumer Dispute Resolution (CDR) in Europe ' (2014) Nederlands-Vlaams Tijdschrift voor Mediation en Conflictmanagement
Id: 7105
Creutzfeldt, 'How important is procedural justice for Consumer Dispute Resolution? A case study of an ombudsman model for European Consumers' (2014) 37 Journal of Consumer Policy
Id: 7106
Hodges, Creutzfeldt and Benoehr, 'Consumer–to–business dispute resolution: the power of CADR ' (2012) ERA Forum Journal of the Academy of European Law
Id: 7102
Hodges, Creutzfeldt and Benoehr, 'Consumer–to–business dispute resolution: the power of CADR ' (2012) ERA Forum Journal of the Academy of European Law
Id: 7103
Berlin and Creutzfeldt, 'Verbraucher-ADR in Europa wird gestärkt ' (2012) Zeitschrift für Konfliktmanagement (ZKM)
Id: 7101
Chakraborty and Creutzfeldt, '2010 Meltdown –Airport Closure Risk Communications in London and NYC ' (2011) European Journal of Risk Regulation
Id: 7099
Chakraborty and Creutzfeldt, 'Initial Phase Crisis Communications following high perceived risk events: The volcanic ash crisis and the Japanese tsunami ' (2011) European Journal of Risk Regulation
Id: 7100
Chakraborty and Creutzfeldt, 'Implications of the Risk Communication Guidelines for the European Union ' (2010) European Journal of Risk Regulation
Id: 7098

Review (1)

Creutzfeldt, 'Book Review:Regulating Dispute Resolution. ADR and Access to Justice at the Crossroads. ' (2016) 1/2016 The Rabel Journal of Comparative and International Private Law Heft [Review]
Id: 7108

Chapter (7)

Creutzfeldt, 'Introduction to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) for Consumers in Europe' in Cauffman, Schmits (ed), The citizen in European Private Law: Norm-setting, Enforcement and Choice (Intersentia 2016)
Id: 7097
Creutzfeldt, 'Ombudsmen schemes' in Cortes, Pablo (ed), The transformation of consumer dispute resolution in the European Union: A renewed approach to consumer protection (OUP 2016)
Id: 7091
Creutzfeldt and Hodges, 'Parallel tracks in mass litigation: public and private responses to the Buncefield explosion in England’ ' in Hensler & Tzankova (ed), (Edward Elgar 2015)
Id: 7096
Hodges and Creutzfeldt, 'Transformations in Public and Private Enforcement' in Hans-W. Mickitz & Andrea Wechsler (ed), The Transformation of Enforcement: European Economic Law in Global Perspective (Hart 2015)
Id: 7092
Creutzfeldt, 'Alternative Dispute Resolution for Consumers' in Stürner, Gascón and Caponi (eds), 'The Role of Consumer ADR in the Administration of Justice - New Trends in Access to Justice under EU Directive 2013/11' (sellier 2014)
Id: 7094
Creutzfeldt and Chakraborty, 'Reconciling inconsistencies in regulation throughout the EU for a risk-based approach towards industry governance: A closer look' in Raadschelders, Graham, Bohme (ed), Public Administration and the Modern State: Assessing trends and impact (Palgrave Macmillan 2014)
Id: 7095
Creutzfeldt, 'The evolution and origins of consumer dispute resolution systems in Europe' in Hodges & Stadler (ed), Resolving Mass Disputes: ADR and Settlement of Mass Claims (Edward Elgar 2013)
Id: 7093

Internet Publication (7)

Id: 7110
Id: 7111
Id: 7116
Id: 7112
Id: 7113
Id: 7114

Report (1)

Id: 7404

Book (2)

Id: 7089
Creutzfeldt, Does Turkey belong to Europe? A comparative analysis of the public debate in the media (Cuvillier Verlag Göttingen 2009)
Id: 7090

Research projects

Research Interests

  • Civil justice systems and access to justice
  • Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
  • Dispute resolution/ behaviour and administrative justice
  • EU law and regulation
  • Socio-legal methods
  • Risk regulation and risk communication
  • Media and political communication across cultures
  • Ombudsmen and procedural justice

Research projects