Professor Carolyn Hoyle has been at the University of Oxford Centre for Criminology since 1991 and was Centre Director from 2012 - 2017. She has published empirical and theoretical research on a number of criminological topics including domestic violence, policing, restorative justice, the death penalty, and wrongful convictions. She teaches courses on the MSc in Criminology & Criminal Justice on: 'Restorative Justice'; 'The Death Penalty'; 'Victims', and 'Academic Communication Skills'. She also lectures on Victims and Restorative Justice on the FHS Law degree and supervises DPhil, MPhil and MSc students on these and other criminological topics. She has recently concluded research into applications to the Criminal Cases Review Commission concerning alleged miscarriages of justice. Her book on this research was published by Oxford University Press in January 2019: Reasons to Doubt: Wrongful Convictions and the Criminal Cases Review Commission  

She is currently working on studies of foreign nationals at risk of capital punishment in Malaysia, funded by the British Academy and the University of Oxford John Fell Fund, and carrying out various projects on the death penalty in Indonesia and Zimbabwe with The Death Penalty Project.


Displaying 1 - 76 of 76. Sorted by year, then title.
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  • C Hoyle and Saul Lehrfreund, 'Contradictions in Judicial Support for Capital Punishment in India and Bangladesh: Utilitarian Rationales' (2020) Asian Journal of Criminology
  • C Hoyle and Laura Tilt, 'Not Innocent Enough: State compensation for miscarriages of justice in England and Wales' [2020] Criminal Law Review
  • Roxanna Willis and C Hoyle, 'The Good, The Bad, and The Street: Does ‘street culture’ affect offender communication and reception in restorative justice?' (2020) European Journal of Criminology
  • C Hoyle, 'The Shifting Landscape of Post-Conviction Review in New Zealand: reflections on the prospects for a Criminal Cases Review Commission' (2020) Current Issues in Criminal Justice
  • C Hoyle, 'Capital Punishment at the intersections of discrimination and disadvantage: the plight of foreign nationals' in C. Steiker and J. Steiker (eds), Comparative Capital Punishment (Edward Elgar publishing 2019)
    ISBN: 978 1 78643 324 4
  • C Hoyle, 'Forensic Science and Expert Testimony in Wrongful Convictions: A study of decision-making at the Criminal Cases Review Commission' (2019) 59 British Journal of Criminology 919
    The Criminal Cases Review Commission reviews possible wrongful convictions in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, referring back to the Court of Appeal cases where there is a ‘real possibility’ that the conviction is unsafe. This article presents findings from a four-year empirical study of decision-making within the Commission. It explores how Commission staff exercise their discretionary powers in identifying and investigating possible wrongful convictions from approximately 1,400 applications a year, referring just a few back to the Court. It focuses on a sample of cases that turned on forensic evidence and expert testimony, showing that while there is some variation in individual caseworkers’ approaches to investigation, decision-making is shaped by the law and internal policies such that reasonably consistent decision frames emerge.
  • C Hoyle, 'Ian O’Donnell, Justice, Mercy & Caprice: Clemency and the Death Penalty in Ireland' (2019) Dublin University Law Journal [Review]
  • C Hoyle and Fernanda Fonseca Robenblatt, 'La Justicia Restaurativa En Reino Unido: Repitiendo los errors del pasado' in H. Soleto & A. Carrascosa (ed), Justicia Restaurativa: Una Justicia Para Las Victimas (Tirant publishing 2019)
  • C Hoyle and Mai Sato, Reasons to Doubt: Wrongful Convictions and the Criminal Cases Review Commission (Oxford University Press 2019)
  • C Hoyle and Diane Batchelor, 'Making room for procedural justice in restorative justice theory’, The International Journal of Restorative Justice' (2018) 1 The International Journal of Restorative Justice 175
  • C Hoyle, 'The American Death Penalty: A flawed institution: Review of Deadly Justice by Baumgartner et al.' (2018) Political Quarterly [Review]
  • C Hoyle and Laura Tilt, 'The Benefits of Social Capital for the Wrongfully Convicted: Considering the promise of a resettlement model' (2018) 57 The Howard Journal of Crime and Justice 495
  • Roger Hood and C Hoyle, 'Towards the Global Elimination of the Death Penalty: a cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment ' in Pat Carlen, Leandro Ayres Franca (ed), Alternative Criminologies (Routledge 2018)
  • Ros Burnett, C Hoyle and Naomi-Ellen Speechley, 'The Context and Impact of Being Wrongly Accused of Abuse in Occupations of Trust' (2017) 56 The Howard Journal 176
    In recent years, there has been rising concern that allegations of sexual abuse, particularly non-recent abuse, have not received an appropriate response. From this has emerged a new determination to correct past and prevent further injustices, with police operations focusing considerable resources on the identification and prosecution of child abusers. Police and other services have reached out to encourage reporting, and developments in the trial process related to the rules of evidence have eroded due process protections for suspects. This article considers this changed legal and social context, and the processes entailed in responding to allegations of abuse, before presenting original empirical data, gathered from the accounts of 30 men and women who were wrongly accused of abuse related to their employment in occupations of trust. It demonstrates the considerable and lasting harms done to those who face allegations of such heinous crimes.
    ISBN: 2059-1098
  • Mai Sato, C Hoyle and Naomi-Ellen Speechley, 'Wrongful Convictions of Refugee and Asylum Seekers: Responses by the Criminal Cases Review Commission' [2017] Criminal Law Review 106
    The Criminal cases review commission reviews possible miscarriages of justice in England, Wales and Northern Ireland when applicants have exhausted other avenues of appeal, with a view to referring unsafe convictions back to the appeal court. This article considers the CCRC's handling of applications from refugees and asylum seekers who claim to have been wrongfully convicted of entering the UK illegally. These cases commonly relate to people who could not obtain travel documents lawfully and were erroneously advised by defence lawyers that they should plead guilty. The article 1st examines the sources of these wrongful convictions by reviewing CCRC referrals to the appeal court. It then reviews the CCRC's wider engagement with other criminal justice agencies in an effort to prevent further wrongful convictions of refugees and asylum seekers. The failing of the criminal justice agencies to properly protect refugees and asylum seekers reflects a wider anxiety about the negative effects of immigration, and the societal appetite to use punitive measures to control immigration. The article concludes by arguing that the CCRC's campaign was effective, and demonstrates the importance of interagency communication in preventing miscarriages of justice.
    ISBN: 711447
  • Mary Bosworth, C Hoyle and Lucia Zedner (eds), Changing Contours of Criminal Justice (Oxford University Press 2016)
    ISBN: 978-0-19-878323-7
  • C Hoyle, 'Compensating Injustice: The Perils of the Innocence Discourse' in Young, S.M., Hunter, J., Roberts, P., and Dixon, D (eds), The Integrity of Criminal Process: From Theory into Practice, (Hart 2016)
  • C Hoyle and Roxana Willis, 'The Challenge of Integrating Restorative Justice into the "Deep-End"' in Blomberg, T.G., Mestre Brancale, J., Beaver, K.M. and Bales, W.D. (eds), Advancing Criminology and Criminal Justice Policy (Routledge 2016)
  • Roger Hood and C Hoyle, 'Towards the Global Elimination of the Death Penalty: A Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Punishment' in Leandro Ayres França and Pat Carlen (eds), Criminologias Alternativas (iEA Academia, Brazil, 2016)
  • C Hoyle, 'Victims of the State: Recognizing the Harms Caused by Wrongful Conviction' in Mary Bosworth; Carolyn Hoyle and Lucia Zedner (eds), Contours of Criminal Justice (Oxford University Press 2016)
    ISBN: 978-0-19-878323
  • C Hoyle, 'Victims of Wrongful Conviction in Retentionist Nations' in United Nations Human Rights (ed), Death Penalty and Victims (United Nations Human Rights, New York 2016)
    ISBN: 978-92-1-154217-2
  • Roger Hood and C Hoyle, The Death Penalty: A Worldwide Perspective (5th edn Oxford University Press 2015)
    ISBN: 978-0-19-870173-6
  • C Hoyle and R Hood, 'Deterrence and Public Opinion’' in United Nations Human Rights (ed), Moving Away from the Death Penalty: Arguments, Trends and Perspectives (New York: UNHR 2014)
  • C Hoyle and N Palmer, 'Family justice centres: A model for empowerment?' (2014) 20 International Review of Victimology 1
    The London Borough of Croydon, in the south of England, established, in December 2005, a Family Justice Centre (FJC) to respond in a flexible way to meet the varied needs of those abused in intimate relationships. The FJC brings together some 33 agencies under one roof. This article draws on a small, grounded pilot study of the Croydon FJC – the first study of a FJC in the UK  to consider if the co-location and cooperation of services to victims of domestic abuse has the potential to empower victims to make informed choices about their futures.
    ISBN: 0269-7580
  • C Hoyle and Leila Ullrich, 'New Court, New Justice? The Evolution of Justice for Victims at Domestic Courts and the International Criminal Court' (2014) Journal of International Criminal Justice
    The International Criminal Court (ICC) is the first international criminal justice institution that explicitly promises to deliver justice for victims by providing for the rights of victims to participation and reparation in criminal proceedings. More than a decade after its establishment, the time is right to consider how this new idea of justice for victims has developed at the ICC. While analysis of the ICC’s framework has benefited from international law and other academic disciplines, such as international relations and politics, there has been too little attention paid to international criminal justice by mainstream criminologists and victimologists. To fill this gap, this article will systematically reflect on the similarities and differences in the evolution of the idea of justice for victims at domestic criminal courts and the ICC from a criminological and victimological perspective. Overall, the comparison suggests that while the concept of justice for victims has been mainly understood in terms of the benefits and problems of incorporating victims’ rights into criminal law procedure in the domestic context, at the ICC, it has led to broader contestations and redefinitions of the very meaning of justice. These contestations on justice have to be understood in the institutional context of a still young and sui generis court that is unsure of the kind of justice it can and should deliver.
  • C Hoyle and Michelle Miao, 'Thinking Beyond Death Penalty Abolitionist Reform: Lessons from Abroad and the Options for China' (2014) 2 China Legal Science 121
    ISBN: 2095-4867
  • C Hoyle, 'Victims, Victimisation and Restorative Justice' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (Oxford University Press 2012)
    ISBN: 9780199590278
  • M Madden Dempsey, C Hoyle and M Bosworth, 'Defining Sex Trafficking in International and Domestic Law: Mind the Gaps' (2012) 26 Emory International Law Review 101
  • C Hoyle, 'Can International Justice be Restorative Justice?: The role of reparations' in N Palmer, D. Granville adn P Clark (ed), Critical Perspectives in Transitional Justice (Intersential Press 2011)
  • C Hoyle, 'Empowerment through Emotion: The use and abuse of victim impact evidence' in E Erez, M Kilchling, and J Wemmers (eds), Therapeutic Jurisprudence and Victim Participation in Justice: International Perspectives (Carolina Academic Press 2011)
  • C Hoyle and M Walters and C Hoyle, 'Exploring the Everyday World of Hate Victimisation through Community Mediation' (2011) Interntational Review of Victimology
  • C Hoyle, 'Global Restrictions on the Use of the Death Penalty: The New Dynamic of Human Rights' [2011] 28 Criminal Law Review 1
  • C Hoyle, M Bosworth and M Dempsey, 'Researching Trafficked Women: On Institutional Resistance and the Limits to Feminist Reflexivity' (2011) 17 Qualitative Inquiry
  • C Hoyle, M Bosworth and M Dempsey, 'Victims of Sex Trafficking: Exploring the borderland between rhetoric and reality' (2011) Social and Legal Studies
    ISBN: 0964-6639
  • C Cunneen and C Hoyle, Debating Restorative Justice (Hart Publishing 2010)
    ISBN: 9781849460224
  • M Walters and C Hoyle, 'Healing Harms and Engendering Tolerance: the promise of restorative justice for hate crime' in N Chakraborti (ed), Concepts, policy, future directions (Willan 2010)
  • C Hoyle and R Hood, 'Towards Global Abolition of the Death Penalty: Progress and Prospects' in Council of Europe / World Coalition against the Death Penalty (ed), The Current State of the Death Penalty (Council of Europe / World Coalition against the Death Penalty 2010)
  • R Hood and C Hoyle, 'Abolishing the Death Penalty Worldwide: The Impact of a New Dynamic?' (2009) 38 Crime and Justice: A Review of Research 1
    ISBN: 9780226808765
  • C Hoyle (ed), Restorative Justice (Critical Concepts series) (Routledge 2009)
  • C Hoyle, 'Restorative Justice Policing in Thames Valley' (2009) Journal of Police Studies vol 2009-2(11) Special Issue on Restorative Policing by L. G. Moor, T. Peters, P. Ponsaers and J. Shapland (eds) 189
  • C Hoyle, 'Will She Be Safe? A Critical Analysis of Risk Assessment inDomestic Violence Cases' (2008) 30 Children and Youth Services Review 323
    ISBN: 0190-7409
  • C Hoyle and S Noguera, 'Supporting Young Offenders Through Restorative Justice: Parents as (In)Appropriate Adults' (2008) 6 British Journal of Community Justice 67
  • C Hoyle, 'Restorative Justice, Victims and the Police' in T Newburn (ed), Handbook of Policing, 2nd edn. (Willan Publishing 2008)
    ISBN: 978-1-84392-323-7
  • C Hoyle, 'Feminism, Victimology and Domestic Violence' in Sandra Walklate (ed), Handbook of the Victims and Victimology (Willan Publishing 2007)
    ISBN: 978-1-84392-258-2
  • C Hoyle, 'Policing and Restorative Justice' in G Johnstone and D Van Ness (eds), Handbook of Restorative Justice (Willan Publishing 2007)
    ISBN: 978-1-84392-151-6
  • C Hoyle and L Zedner, 'Victims, Victimization and Criminal Justice' in M Maguire, R Morgan and R Reiner (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, 4th edn (OUP 2007)
    ISBN: 978-0-19-920543-1
  • A Wilcox, C Hoyle and R Young, 'Are Randomised Controlled Trials Really the "Gold Standard" in Restorative Justice Research?' (2005) 3 British Journal of Community Justice 39
  • R Young, C Hoyle, K Cooper and R Hill, 'Informal Resolution of Complaints Against the Police: A quasi-experimental test of restorative justice' (2005) 5 Criminal Justice 279
  • C Hoyle, Roderick Hill, Karen Cooper and Richard Young, Meeting Expectations: The Application of Restorative Justice to the Police Complaints Process (Occasional Paper No. 21, Centre for Criminological Research 2003)
    ISBN: 0 947811 20 6
  • R Young and C Hoyle, 'New Improved Restorative Justice?: Action-Research and the Thames Valley Initiative in Restorative Cautioning' in A von Hirsch, A Bottoms, J Roberts, K Roach and M Schiff (eds), Restorative Justice and Criminal Justice: Competing or Complementary Paradigms? (Hart Publishing 2003)
    ISBN: 1-84113-273-X
  • C Hoyle and Richard Young, 'Restorative Justice, Victims and the Police' in T Newburn (ed), Handbook of Policing (Willan Publishing. 2003)
    ISBN: 1-84392-020-4
  • C Hoyle, Roderick Hill, Karen Cooper and Richard Young, 'Introducing Restorative Justice to the Police Complaints System: Close Encounters of the Rare Kind.' (2003) Occasional Paper No. 20. Centre for Criminological Research 35
    ISBN: 0 947811 19 2
  • C Hoyle and Richard Young, 'Restorative Justice and Punishment' in S. McConville (ed), The Use of Punishment (Willan Publishing 2003)
    ISBN: 1-84392-033-6
  • C Hoyle and Richard Young (eds), New Visions of Crime Victims (Hart Publishing 2002)
    ISBN: 1-84113-280-2
  • C Hoyle, R Young and R Hill, Proceed with Caution: An Evaluation of the Thames Valley Police Initiative in Restorative Cautioning (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2002)
    ISBN: 1-84263-071-7
  • C Hoyle and Richard Young, 'Restorative Justice: Assessing the Prospects and Pitfalls' in M McConville and G Wilson (eds), The Handbook of the Criminal Justice Process (Oxford University Press 2002)
    ISBN: 0-19-925395-1
  • C Hoyle, 'Securing Restorative Justice for the 'Non-Participating' Victim' in Carolyn Hoyle and Richard Young (eds), New Visions of Crime Victims (Hart Publishing 2002)
    ISBN: 1-84113-280-2
  • R Young and C Hoyle, The Implementation and Effectiveness of the Initiative in Restorative Cautioning by Thames Valley Police, Research Findings (Joseph Rowntree Foundation 2002)
  • C Hoyle, 'Restorative Justice in the Thames Valley: Changes in the Complaints and Discipline Process,' (2001) 133 Prison Service Journal 37
    ISBN: 0300-3558
  • C Hoyle, Andrew Sanders, Rod Morgan and Ed Cape, 'Victim Impact Statements: Don't work, Can't work' [2001] June Criminal Law Review 437
    ISBN: 0011 135X
  • C Hoyle, 'Being a 'nosy bloody cow': ethical and methodological issues in researching domestic violence' in R King and E Wincup (eds), Doing Research on Crime and Justice (Oxford University Press 2000)
  • R Young and C Hoyle, 'Examining the Guts of Restorative Justice' (2000) 40 Criminal Justice Matters
  • C Hoyle, Restorative Justice and other New Penal Patterns, Conference Rapporteur's Report to the Ditchley Foundation (Ditchley Conference Document D00/07 2000)
  • N Preston, C Hoyle and R Young, 'Restoring the Faith' (1999) Police Review


Her teaching interests are criminology, criminal justice and penology.


Research programmes

Research projects

Research Interests

Death Penalty, Wrongful Convictions, Criminal Justice, Criminology

Options taught

Criminology and Criminal Justice

Blog posts by Carolyn Hoyle

12 May 2020

Announcing the Death Penalty Research Unit (DPRU) at the Centre for Criminology

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
26 Jun 2019

A Call for New Rigorous Empirical Research to Better Inform Drug Trafficking Policy in Indonesia

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
30 Aug 2017

Change of Guard

By Carolyn Hoyle | Mary Bosworth

Centre for Criminology
28 Feb 2017

Annual Thames Valley Police-Oxford Criminology Seminar

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
Criminology logo
20 Dec 2016

Happy Holidays from the Centre for Criminology

By Carolyn Hoyle | Mary Bosworth

Centre for Criminology
25 Nov 2016

'Changing Contours of Criminal Justice'

By Mary Bosworth | Carolyn Hoyle | Lucia Zedner

Centre for Criminology
12 Oct 2016

Informal Seminar Series: 'The Triumph of Mercy: Understanding the American death penalty decline'.

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
08 Aug 2016

The Gradual Erosion of the State’s Commitment to Compensate the Wrongfully Convicted

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
04 Jun 2015

American Law Students Help to Secure the Release of Malawian Prisoners

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
27 Apr 2015

There's No Evidence that the Death Penalty Acts as a Deterrent

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
13 Apr 2015

Remembering Women Sentenced to Death

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
13 Jan 2015

Progress Towards World-Wide Abolition of the Death Penalty

By Roger Hood | Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
13 Jan 2014

The Death Penalty in Japan

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
06 Dec 2013

Mandela and the Death Penalty

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
11 Oct 2013

Death Row in India

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
17 Sep 2013

Delhi Death Sentences

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
09 Nov 2012

California Holds onto the Death Penalty – But Only Just!

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology
07 Nov 2012

The Costs of American Criminal Justice: California’s Fiscal Crisis Gives Hopes to Liberals

By Carolyn Hoyle

Centre for Criminology

Research projects