This research is devoted to the complaint mechanism, which is deeply rooted in the history of Russian society, and actively recreating in contemporary Russia since the beginning of Putin's presidency. For the first time in the history complaints mechanism co-exists with the Conception on the Rule of Law, which is recognized by the current Russian Constitution. Contemporary complaints mechanism permits direct application to the President with any problem. Special office at President's administration register about 1 million of applications, addressed to the President annually.

In this report Dr Bogdanova is showing the complaint mechanism from different sides: as a political technology, strengthening president's power, as an alternative way of dispute resolution, available in contemporary Russia, and as a tool of digital democracy.