On 15 April 2011 Prof Julian Roberts from the Centre for Criminology at University of Oxford and Dr Cyrus Tata from the Centre for Sentencing Research at Strathclyde University co-organized a symposium for the Sentencing & Penal Decision-Making European Society of Criminology Working Group. The theme of the symposium was “Researching the Judicial Role in European Sentencing: Interactions & Dynamics”. The meeting, which was held at the Manor Road Building in Oxford, was attended by 25 scholars from across Europe who are working in the area of sentencing and penal decision-making.