A Report by Charmaine Cole and Prof Chris Hodges into the 80 pieces of legislation that give rise to appeal rights currently heard by the General Regulatory Chamber of the First-tier Tribunal (the GRC) has found a worrying level of inconsistency in the governing legislation that have led to uncertainty, unnecessary costs and satellite litigation. The main issues concern possible confusion in some instances over whether an appeal is a procedural review or rehearing, who has standing to bring an appeal, whether or not new evidence may be produced, whether administrative orders are suspended or not pending the outcome, inconsistent definitions, and an inconsistent approach to remedies.  

The authors recommend a template of issues that drafters of legislation should observe in order to provide clarity, as well as retrospective review of existing legislation so as to form a coherent framework. They also suggest that arrangements should be introduced for co-ordination between Regulators, Ombudsmen, Tribunals, and other bodies with similar jurisdiction in any particular field.