Biography

Julian Roberts holds a Ph.D from the University of Toronto and an LL.M. from the University of London. He was a member of the Sentencing Council of England and Wales from 2008-2018.  He is currently Executive Director of the Sentencing Academy, a London-based institute which links scholars with practitioners, and promotes greater public understanding of sentencing in England and Wales. Julian has authored or co-authored 8 books, the most recent of which is 'Paying for the Past' (with Richard Frase) published by the Oxford University Press in 2019. He has edited or co-edited 18 scholarly volumes, the most recent of which is Sentencing in Canada (with Justice David Cole) published by Irwin Law in Canada. 

Julian has been a Visiting Professor at a number of universities, including: Faculty of Law, University of Ferrara; Faculty of law, University of Minnesota; Visiting Professor, European Public Law Program, Athens (2015); Global Law School, University of Haifa (2012); Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge (2012); Visiting International Professor, Faculty of Law, Université Libre de Bruxelles (2009-2010);  School of Law, King’s College London (2009-2010; 2005-2006); Faculty of Law, Catholic University of Leuven (2007-2008). From 2014-2018 he was co-Director of the Criminal History Project located in the Robina Institute, Faculty of Law, University of Minnesota. This multi-year project conducted research into the use of prior convictions in the US sentencing guidelines. 

Books Authored, Co-authored or Edited

Ambos, K., Roberts, J.V., Duff, R.A., and Weigend, T. (eds.) (2021) Core Issues in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. Volume 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ryberg, J. and Roberts, J.V. (eds.) (2021) Sentencing and Artificial Intelligence. Studies in Penal Theory and Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Roberts, J.V. and Grossman, M. (eds.) (2021) Criminal Justice in Canada. (Sixth Edition).Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Ambos, K., Roberts, J.V., Duff, R.A., and Weigend, T. (eds.) (2020) Core Issues in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice. Volume 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, J.V. and Cole, D. (eds.) (2020) Sentencing in Canada: Essays in Law, Policy and Practice. Toronto: Irwin Law.

Frase, R. and Roberts, J.V. (2019) Paying for the Past: Prior Record Enhancements in the US Sentencing Guidelines. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ryberg, J., Roberts, J.V., and De Keijser, J. (2017) More than a Single Crime. Sentencing the Multiple Count Offender. New York: Oxford University Press.

Roberts, J.V. (Ed.) (2015) Exploring Sentencing Practice in England and Wales. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Manson, A., Roberts, J.V., Healy, P., Ives, D., and Trotter, G. (Eds.) (2016) Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada. (Third Toronto: Emond Montgomery.

Roberts, J.V. and Grossman, M. (Eds.) (2015) Criminal Justice in Canada. (Fifth Edition). Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Roberts, J.V. (2015) Criminal Justice. A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ryberg, J. and Roberts, J.V. (Eds.) (2014) Popular Punishment. The Normative Significance of Public Opinion for Sentencing Theory and Practice. Studies in Penal Theory and Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Ashworth, A. and Roberts, J.V. (Eds.) (2013) Sentencing Guidelines: Exploring the English Model. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zedner, L. and Roberts, J.V. (Eds.) (2012) Principles and Values in Criminal Law and Criminal  Justice: Festchrift Essays in Honour of Andrew Ashworth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mitchell, B. and Roberts, J.V. (2012) Sentencing for Murder: Exploring the Mandatory Sentence  of Life Imprisonment for Murder. Oxford: Hart Publications.

Roberts, J.V. (Ed.) (2011) Mitigation and Aggravation at Sentencing. Cambridge Studies in Law and Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roberts, J.V. and von Hirsch, A. (Eds.) (2010) Previous Convictions at Sentencing: Theoretical and Applied  Perspectives.  Studies in Penal Theory and Ethics. Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Bottoms, A. and Roberts, J.V. (Eds.) (2010) Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims, and the State. Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

von Hirsch, A., Ashworth, A. and Roberts, J.V. (Eds.) (2009) Principled Sentencing. Readings on Theory and Policy. (Third edition). Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Roberts, J.V. (2008) Punishing Persistent Offenders. Community and Offender Perspectives on the Recidivist Sentencing Premium. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Manson, A., Roberts, J.V., Healy, P., Ives, D., and Trotter, G. (Eds.) (2008) Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada. (Second Edition). Toronto: Emond Montgomery

Roberts, J.V. and Hough, M. (2005) Understanding Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Chinese Translation published in 2010.

Roberts, J.V. (2004) The Virtual Prison. Community Custody and the Evolution of Imprisonment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hough, M. and Roberts, J.V. (2004) Youth Crime and Youth Justice: Public Opinion in England and Wales.  Bristol: The Policy Press.

Roberts, J.V., Stalans, L.S., Indermaur, D., and Hough, M. (2003) Penal Populism and Public Opinion. Lessons from Five Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

von Hirsch, A., Roberts, J.V., Bottoms, A.E., Roach, K., and Schiff, M. (Eds.) (2003) Restorative and Criminal Justice. Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? Oxford: Hart Publishing.

Roberts, J.V. and Hough, M. (Eds.) (2002) Changing Attitudes to Punishment. Public Opinion, Crime and Justice.  Cullompton: Willan Publishing.

Roberts, J.V. (Ed.) (2000) Criminal Justice in Canada. Toronto: Harcourt Brace.

Roberts, J.V. and Cole, D. (Eds.) (1999) Making Sense of Sentencing. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Roberts, J.V. and Stalans, L. (1997) Public Opinion, Crime, and Criminal Justice. Boulder: Westview Press.

Roberts, J.V. and Mohr, R. (Eds.) (1994) Confronting Sexual Assault. A Decade of Legal and Social Change. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Roberts, J.V. and Hudson, J. (Eds.) (1993) Evaluating Justice: Policies and Programs. Toronto: Thompson Educational Publishing.

Publications

Recent additions

  • J Roberts, R Frase and A Freiberg, Sentencing Guidance and Sentencing Commissions: Comparative Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press 2022) (forthcoming)
  • A Manson, P Healy, D Ives and J Roberts (eds), Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada (4th Edition) (Toronto: Emond Montgomery 2022) (forthcoming)
  • J Roberts, ''Give them air quickly but don't let them out': Sentencing for Manslaughter involving Multiple Offenders and Victims' (2021) Journal of Criminal Law (forthcoming)
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3827080
    Sentencing for multiple offences poses many challenges and becomes even more complex when the crimes resulted in fatalities. This article uses the sentences imposed following convictions in the Essex lorry case to pose some general questions about the sentencing of multiple victim manslaughters. The four principal offenders were convicted of 39 counts of unlawful act manslaughter and conspiracy to facilitate unlawful immigration into the UK. The analysis identifies several ways in which the sentences ultimately imposed failed to adequately distinguish between offenders of very different levels of culpability. First, all four principal offenders were assigned to the same level of culpability in the manslaughter guideline. Second, although the court could have distinguished the offenders to reflect their different culpability levels, the same Starting Point sentence was imposed on all offenders. Third, the sentencing uplifts to reflect the multiple counts were similar across offenders of very different culpabilities. Fourth, the differential additional punishments for the conspiracy conviction – which would have separated the offenders' time in custody further – were washed out by being made concurrent. As a result of these decisions, the final sentences failed to adequately distinguish between offenders of very different culpabilities. The article concludes with some lessons for sentencing in these cases, specifically with respect to the Sentencing Council's guidelines.

Edited Book (25)

A Manson, P Healy, D Ives and J Roberts (eds), Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada (4th Edition) (Toronto: Emond Montgomery 2022) (forthcoming)
J Roberts, K Ambos, RA Duff and T Weigend (eds), Core Issues in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Volume 2 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2021) (forthcoming)
J Roberts and M Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada (Sixth Edition) (Toronto: Nelson 2021)
ISBN: 9780176911065
J Ryberg and J Roberts (eds), Sentencing and Artificial Intelligence (Studies in Penal Theory and Philosophy) (New York: Oxford University Press 2021) (forthcoming)
J Ryberg, J Roberts and J de Keijser (eds), Sentencing Multiple Crimes (New York: Oxford University Press 2017)
DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190607609.001.0001
ISBN: 9780190607609
A Manson, J Roberts, P. Healy and D Ives (eds), Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada (Third Edition) (Toronto: Emond Montgomery 2016)
ISBN: 978-1552396551
J Roberts and M Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada (Fifth Edition) (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2015)
ISBN: 978-0176557898
J Roberts (ed), Exploring Sentencing. Empirical and Normative Aspects of Legal Punishment in England and Wales. (Palgrave 2015) (forthcoming)
ISBN: 978-1-137-39039-4
J Roberts and Michelle Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada. A Reader (5th edn Nelson 2014)
ISBN: 978-0-17-655789-8
J. Ryberg and J Roberts (eds), Popular Punishment: The Normative Significance of Public Opinion for Penal Theory (Oxford University Press 2014)
A. Ashworth and J Roberts (eds), Structured Sentencing in England and Wales: From Guidance to Guidelines (Oxford University Press 2013)
L. Zedner and J Roberts (eds), Principled Approaches to Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Essays in Honour of Andrew Ashworth. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012)
J Roberts and M. Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada. (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2011)
J Roberts (ed), Mitigation and Aggravation at Sentencing (Cambridge University Press 2011)
ISBN: 9780521197809
P. Stenning and J Roberts (eds), The Scholarship of Jean-Paul Brodeur (15 Canadian Journal of Criminology 2011)
J Roberts and A von Hirsch (eds), Previous Convictions at Sentencing: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives (Hart Publishing 2010)
ISBN: 9781849460422
A Bottoms and J Roberts (eds), Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice,Crime Victims, and the State (Willan Publishing 2010)
A Ashworth, A von Hirsch and J Roberts (eds), Principled Sentencing (Third Edition) (Hart Publishing 2009)
A Manson, P Healy, J Roberts and D Ives (eds), Sentencing and Penal Policy in Canada (Second Edition) (Emond Montgomery 2008)
J Roberts (ed), Criminal Justice in Canada. Third Edition. (Thomson Nelson 2007)
ISBN: 0-19-513623-3
J Roberts and Mike Hough (eds), Changing Attitudes to Punishment: International Context. (Willan Publishing. 2002)
ISBN: 1-84392-003-4
J Roberts (ed), Making Sense of Sentencing (University of Toronto Press 1999)

Book (11)

J Roberts, R Frase and A Freiberg, Sentencing Guidance and Sentencing Commissions: Comparative Perspectives (New York: Oxford University Press 2022) (forthcoming)
J Roberts, Criminal Justice. A Very Short Introduction. (University of Oxford. 2015)
B. Mitchell and J Roberts, Exploring the Mandatory Sentence for Murder (Oxford: Hart Publishing 2012)
ISBN: 9781849462280
J Roberts, Punishing Persistent Offenders (Oxford University Press 2008)
ISBN: 9780199283897
J Roberts, Criminal Justice in Canada: An Overview (Toronto: Thomson Nelson. 2007)
J Roberts and M Hough, Understanding Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice (Open University Press 2005)
ISBN: 0 335 21536X
J Roberts, The Virtual Prison. Community Custody and the Evolution of Imprisonment. (Cambridge University Press 2004)
ISBN: 0 521 82959 3
J Roberts, Dave Indermaur, Mike Hough and Loretta Stalans, Penal Populism and Public Opinion. Lessons from Five Countries. (Oxford University Press. 2003)
ISBN: 0-19-513623-3
J Roberts, A. von Hirsch, A. Bottoms and K. Roach, Restorative and Criminal Justice. Competing or Reconcilable Paradigms? (Hart Publishing Oxford. 2003)
ISBN: 1-84113-273-X
J Roberts and Mike Hough, Changing Attitudes to Punishment. Public opinion, crime and criminal justice (Willan Publishing 2002)
ISBN: 1-84392-002-6

Journal Article (105)

J Roberts, ''Give them air quickly but don't let them out': Sentencing for Manslaughter involving Multiple Offenders and Victims' (2021) Journal of Criminal Law (forthcoming)
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3827080
Sentencing for multiple offences poses many challenges and becomes even more complex when the crimes resulted in fatalities. This article uses the sentences imposed following convictions in the Essex lorry case to pose some general questions about the sentencing of multiple victim manslaughters. The four principal offenders were convicted of 39 counts of unlawful act manslaughter and conspiracy to facilitate unlawful immigration into the UK. The analysis identifies several ways in which the sentences ultimately imposed failed to adequately distinguish between offenders of very different levels of culpability. First, all four principal offenders were assigned to the same level of culpability in the manslaughter guideline. Second, although the court could have distinguished the offenders to reflect their different culpability levels, the same Starting Point sentence was imposed on all offenders. Third, the sentencing uplifts to reflect the multiple counts were similar across offenders of very different culpabilities. Fourth, the differential additional punishments for the conspiracy conviction – which would have separated the offenders' time in custody further – were washed out by being made concurrent. As a result of these decisions, the final sentences failed to adequately distinguish between offenders of very different culpabilities. The article concludes with some lessons for sentencing in these cases, specifically with respect to the Sentencing Council's guidelines.
J Roberts and J Saunders, 'Sentencing for Murder: The Adverse and Unintended Consequences of Schedule 21 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003' [2020] 10 Criminal Law Review 900
In light of recent government proposals to reform sentencing, this article looks back to reforms introduced to sentencing for murder. Schedule 21 to the Criminal Justice Act 2003 created starting points to assist courts in determining the minimum sentence for offenders convicted of murder. The authors argue that the cursory review of the Schedule, and the failure to consider its impact has led to several adverse consequences. First, since the starting points in the Schedule were not the product of a careful proportionality analysis, they do not conform to the requirements of ordinal proportionality. The guidance offered by Sch.21 has compromised rather than promoted proportional sentencing for murder. Second, Sch.21 has also resulted in minimum terms the severity of which cannot be justified on grounds of desert or deterrence. The authors propose some remedial reforms.
L Harris and J Roberts, 'Sentencing in Transition: Recent Developments' [2020] 5 Criminal Law Review 371
Highlights initiatives to reform sentencing law and practice, including a greater emphasis on consistency and sentencing principles by the Court of Appeal, the forthcoming production of the Law Commission's Sentencing Code, the broadcasting of Crown Court sentencing remarks, the work of the Sentencing Council, the production of sentencing guidelines in Scotland and Northern Ireland, and changes to early release from prison policies.
J Roberts and U Azmeh, 'Cleansing the Augean Stables: A Commentary on the Law Commission's Sentencing Code for England and Wales' [2019] 8 Criminal Law Review 694
In 2018 the Law Commission published its Sentencing Code, the final product of a project originating in 2015. The aim of the project was to create a single sentencing statute to bring together all of the existing legislation governing sentencing procedure within a single enactment. This commentary recognises the importance of the Commission's initiative and advocates a more ambitious reform based upon the Code. The authors see the Code as constituting a platform for future reforms; the consolidation was a necessary first step towards more principled and consistent sentencing. In this respect, it constitutes a dynamic structure which should facilitate further enhancements to the sentencing process.
J Pina-Sánchez, J Roberts and D Sferopoulos, 'Does the Crown Court Discriminate against Muslim-Named Offenders? A Novel Investigation Based on Text-mining Techniques' (2019) 59 The British Journal of Criminology 718–736
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/bjc/azy062
Most research in sentencing discrimination in the United Kingdom has relied on aggregate analyses comparing disparities by ethnic group. These studies fail to consider differences in the individual characteristics of the cases processed. To circumvent the lack of official data, we scraped sentence records stored in a commercial website, from which a sample of 8,437 offenders sentenced to custody in the Crown Court from 2007 to 2017 was generated. Using the names of the offenders, we have been able to classify 8.6 per cent of our sample as having a traditional Muslim name. We find that Muslim-named offenders received sentences 9.8 per cent longer than the rest of the sample. However, this difference disappeared once we accounted for the type of offence and other key case characteristics.
KM Yilma and J Roberts, 'Out of Africa: Exploring the Ethiopian Sentencing Guidelines' (2019) 30 Criminal Law Forum 309–337
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10609-019-09373-x
To date, the literature on sentencing reform has largely focused on western jurisdictions, particularly the United States and Europe. Developments in other parts of the world, particularly on the African continent, have been overlooked. This article explores sentencing in a lesser-known African jurisdiction: Ethiopia. The focus of the essay is upon the issue of structured sentencing. Sentencing in Ethiopia, like most jurisdictions, has historically been a very discretionary stage of the criminal process. That has now changed with the introduction of a comprehensive guideline scheme. Although sentencing guidelines in the US and England and Wales have been the subject of much critical scrutiny, nonwestern guidelines have attracted very little attention from scholars. Although there are parallels between the structure of the Ethiopian system and guidelines in other countries, there are also important differences. Since they are more developed than guidelines in adjacent countries, the Ethiopian guidelines constitute a model for other regional nations, including those with a post-colonial legacy. After providing an overview of sentencing in Ethiopia, the article describes the origin, nature, and consequences of the Ethiopian guidelines. The guidelines provide sentence ranges for different levels of seriousness for many crimes, and also prescribe a methodology to guide courts sentencing for offences for which no such guidance exists. They also provide some structure for the judicial use of mitigating and aggravating factors at sentencing. We conclude by identifying some deficiencies of the current guidelines and propose some specific remedies.
N Dagan and J Roberts, 'Retributivism, Penal Censure, and Life Imprisonment without Parole' (2019) 38 Criminal Justice Ethics 1
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0731129X.2019.1600289
This article advances a censure-based case against sentences of life imprisonment without the possibility of parole. Our argument justifies a retributive “second look” assessment of long-term prison sentences. The article focuses on the censuring element of long-term prison sentences while reconceptualizing penal censure as a dynamic and responsive concept. By doing so, the article explores the significance of the prisoner’s life after sentencing (largely ignored by retributivists) and promotes a more nuanced approach to censure-based proportionality. Policy-makers may welcome this approach as a way to control excessive prison sentences while remaining within a retributive penal framework. Although we are making a general argument about the need for responsive censure within a retributive sentencing regime, the case for this approach is particularly compelling at the present time. Almost all Western nations, and particularly the US, impose very lengthy, often life sentences of imprisonment for a wide range of offences, thereby affecting large numbers of prisoners.
A. Reid and J Roberts, 'Revisiting the Conditional Sentence of Imprisonment after 20 years: Is Community Custody now an Endangered Species?' (2019) 24 Canadian Criminal Law Review 1
The conditional sentence of imprisonment (CSI) is a novel form of custody that was created by Bill C-41 in 1996. Among other important objectives, it was introduced to reduce admissions to provincial correctional facilities. This article builds upon previous research to explore the use and impact of the CSI over its 21-year history. Trends over the period 1996-2016 suggest that the CSI has modestly contributed to reducing custodial admissions, although the effect has been variable across jurisdictions. The greatest impacts were observed during the early years of its existence. Legislative amendments that have since restricted its availability appear to have diminished much of that early success. Consequently, we advocate reform by identifying a number of strategies that could help to restore the sanction.
J Roberts, 'The Evolution of Sentencing Guidelines: Comparing Minnesota and England and Wales' (2019) 48 Crime and Justice
Sentencing guidelines were an exclusively American enterprise until recently. Since 2004, however, other countries have joined in. Contrasting approaches are exemplified by systems developed by the Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines Commission and the Sentencing Council of England and Wales. Minnesota’s guidelines are set out in grids that categorize cases by offense and criminal history. Each cell sets out ranges of sentences that are presumed to be appropriate. The English guidelines are step-by-step decision trees, one for each principal offense category. Each jurisdiction created an approach that fits its sentencing environment. The Minnesota grids are more restrictive and generate high levels of judicial conformity and consistency. The English guidelines allow greater discretion, possibly at the cost of consistency. However, the English approach provides ampler guidance on use of different dispositions, sentencing of multiple crimes, appropriate reductions to reflect guilty pleas, and other subjects. Neither the Minnesota Commission nor the English Council has been particularly self-critical. Minnesota’s main grid has changed little since 1980. England’s guidelines have evolved considerably, but the council has ignored calls to play a more active role in controlling the use of custody and hence the size of the prison population.
ISBN: 187-254
J Roberts, J Pina-Sanchez and I Marder, 'Individualisation at Sentencing: The Effects of Sentencing Guidelines and ‘Preferred’ Numbers' [2018] Criminal Law Review (forthcoming)
D Cole and J Roberts, 'R. v. F.H.L.: What’s the Point of Pleading Guilty?' (2018) 44 Criminal Reports 44
Defendants who plead guilty receive a reduced sentence. But is this always the case, and should it be? This case comment is largely restricted to analyzing whether the Ontario Court of Appeal was correct in refusing to consider the Appellant’s guilty plea as a mitigating factor (paras. 21–24). It is argued that this aspect of the decision is inconsistent with long-standing authority from the same Court of Appeal. In discussing the issue of plea-based sentence reductions we also explore other aspects of this controversial element of common law sentencing.
R Hester, J Roberts, R Frase and K Mitchell, 'A measure of tolerance: Public attitudes toward sentencing enhancements for old and juvenile priors. Corrections.' (2017) Policy, Practice and Research
J Roberts, 'Aboriginal Incarceration in Canada since 1978: Every Picture ' (2017) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
J Roberts and L Harris, 'Addressing the problem of the Prison Estate: The Role of Sentencing Policy' (2017) 231 The Prison Service Journal Aug
C Lightowler, J Pina-Sanchez and J Roberts, 'Exploring the Punitive Surge: Crown Court sentencing practices before and after the 2011 English riots' (2017) Criminology and Criminal Justice
J Roberts and L Harris, 'Reconceptualizing the Custody Threshold in England and Wales' (2017) Criminal Law Forum
J Roberts and G Watson, 'Reducing Female Admissions to Custody: Exploring the Remedial Sentencing Options' (2017) Criminology and Criminal Justice Jan
J Roberts and W Pei, 'Structuring Judicial Discretion in China: Exploring the 2014 Sentencing Guidelines' (2016) 27 Criminal Law Forum Mar
J Roberts and Ben Bradford, 'Sentence Reductions for a Guilty Plea: New Empirical Evidence from England and Wales ' (2015) Journal of Empirical Legal Studies (forthcoming)
J Roberts and Jan de Keijser, 'Democratizing Punishment: Sentencing, Community Views and Values' (2014) Punishment and Society. The International Journal of Penology
J Roberts and J. Pina-Sanchez, 'Previous Convictions at Sentencing: Exploring Empirical Trends in the Crown Court ' [2014] Criminal Law Review 575
J Roberts and O. Yalinchak, 'Risk, Retribution, and Prior Record Enhancement Provisions in State Sentencing Guidelines' (2014) 26 Federal Sentencing Reporter 177
Barry Mitchell and J Roberts, 'Bringing Principles and Fairness Sentencing for Murder' (2013) 24 Criminal Law Forum 501
J Roberts and M Hough, 'Public Attitudes to Sentencing Riot Related Offending' (2013) 53 British Journal of Criminology 234
J Roberts, 'Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales: Recent Developments and Emerging Issues' (2013) Law and Contemporary Problems
J Roberts and H. Bebbington, 'Sentencing Reform in Canada: Promoting a Return to Principles and Evidence-based Policy ' (2013) 17 Canadian Criminal Law Review 327
J Roberts and O. Gazal-Ayal, 'Sentencing Reform in Israel: An Analysis of the Statutory Reforms of 2012 ' (2013) 46 Israel Law Review 455
J Roberts and Marie Manikis, 'Victim Personal Statements: Latest (and last) Trends from the Witnesses and Victims Experience Survey in England and Wales' (2013) Criminology and Criminal Justice
J Roberts, 'Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales: Recent Developments ' (2012) Punishment and Society. The International Journal of Penology
ISBN: 1462-4745
J Roberts, 'Points of Departure: Reflections on Sentencing Outside the Definitive Guidelines Ranges ' [2012] 6 Criminal Law Review 439
J Roberts, M. Hough and J. Jackson, 'Public Attitudes toward the Lay Magistracy and the Sentencing Council Guidelines: The Effects of Information on Opinion ' (2012) British Journal of Criminology
ISBN: 1464-3529
J Roberts, 'Structured Sentencing in Canada and England and Wales: A Tale of Two Jurisdictions ' (2012) Criminal Law Forum
J Roberts and M. Manikis, 'Victim Impact Statements at Sentencing: Developments in Caselaw. ' (2012) Victims of Crime Research Digest
J Roberts, 'Sentencing Guidelines and Judicial Discretion: Evolution of the Duty of Courts to Comply in England and Wales' (2011) British Journal of Criminology
ISBN: 0007-0955
J Roberts, M. Hough and A. Ashworth, 'Personal Mitigation, Public Opinion and Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales' [2011] Criminal Law Review
J Roberts and M. Hough, 'Public Attitudes to the Criminal Jury: A Review of International Trends' (2011) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice
B. Mitchell and J Roberts, 'Public Attitudes Towards the Mandatory Life Sentence for Murder in England and Wales: Putting Received Wisdom to the Empirical Test. ' [2011] Criminal Law Review
M. Manikis and J Roberts, 'Recognizing Ancillary Harm at Sentencing: A Proportionate and Balanced Response' (2011) Canadian Criminal Law Review
B. Mitchell and J Roberts, 'Sentencing for Murder: Exploring Public Knowledge and Public Opinion in England and Wales' (2011) British Journal of Criminology
J Roberts and A. Rafferty, 'Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales: Exploring the New Format' [2011] Criminal Law Review
J Roberts, U. Azmeh and K. Tripathi, 'Structured Sentencing in England and Wales: Lessons for India?' (2011) National Law School of India Review
P. Carrington, J Roberts and S. Davis-Barron, 'The ‘Last Chance’ Sanction in Youth Court: Exploring the Deferred Custody and Supervision Order' (2011) Canadian Criminal Law Review
E. Player, J. Jacobson, J Roberts, M. Hough and J. Rowbottom, 'Remanded in Custody: An Analysis of Recent trends in England and Wales' (2010) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice
J Roberts, 'The Evolution of Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales' (2010) Criminal Justice Matters
J Roberts and M Manikis, 'Victim Impact Statements at Sentencing: Exploring the relevance of Ancillary Harm (in press)' (2010) Canadian Criminal Law Review
J Roberts and M Hough, 'Custody or Community? Exploring the Boundaries of Public Punitiveness in England and Wales (in press)' (2010) Criminology and Criminal Justice
N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'The Youth Criminal Justice Act: A Qualified Success' (2009) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
J Roberts, '"Faint Hope" in the Firing Line: Repeal of S. 745.6?' (2009) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 537
J Roberts, M Hough, J Jacobson and N Moon, 'Public Attitudes to Sentencing Purposes and Sentencing Factors: An Empirical Analysis' [2009] Criminal Law Review 771
J Roberts, 'Punishing Persistence: Explaining the Enduring Appeal of the Recidivist Sentencing Premium' (2008) British Journal of Criminology 468
ISBN: 0007-0955
J Roberts, 'Victims of Crime: Successes and Challenges in the Years to Come' (2008) Victims of Crime Research
J Roberts, 'Aggravating and Mitigating Factors at Sentencing: Towards Greater Consistency of Application' [2008] Criminal Law Review 264
J Roberts, M Hough, J Jacobson and J Bredee, 'Public attitudes to sentencing offenders convicted of offences involving death by driving' [2008] Criminal Law Review 525
J Roberts, N. Crutcher and P. Verbrugge, 'Public Attitudes to Sentencing in Canada: Exploring Recent Findings' (2007) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
J Roberts, 'Public Confidence in Criminal Justice in Canada: A Comparative and Contextual Analysis' (2007) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
J Roberts and R. Hastings, 'Public Opinion and Crime Prevention: A Review of International Findings' (2007) Revue de l’Institut pour la Prevention de la Criminalite,
J Roberts, 'Reforming Conditional Sentencing: Evaluating Recent Legislative Proposals' (2006) Criminal Law Quarterly
J Roberts, 'Reducing the Use of Custody as a Sanction: A Review of Recent Strategies' (2006) Judicial Studies Institute Journal, 2006
J Roberts, 'Reducing Prison Populations: Exploring Alternative Strategies' (2005) Reform: A Journal of National and International Law Reform
J Roberts and Kent Roach, 'Community sentencing and the perspective of crime victims: a socio-legal analysis.' (2005) Queen's Law Journal, 2005.
J Roberts, J. Unnever and F. Cullen, 'Not everyone strongly supports the death penalty: assessing weakly-held attitudes about capital punishment.' (2005) American Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005.
J Roberts, 'Pre-trial Custody, Terms of imprisonment and theConditional Sentence: Crediting 'Dead Time' to effect 'Regime Change' in sentencing' (2005) 9 Canadian Criminal Law Review 191
ISBN: 1203-8660
J Roberts and J. Sprott, 'Punitive and moderate penal policies: explaining divergent approaches to reform in Canada and the United States.' (2005) International Journal of Comparative Criminology, 2005.
J Roberts, Mike Hough and L.Stalans, 'Restorative Justice and the Views of the Public.' (2005) Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht, 2005.
J Roberts and S. Terblanche, 'Sentencing in South Africa: lacking in principle but delivering justice?' (2005) South African Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005.
J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'Sentencing young offenders: public opinion in England and Wales.' (2005) Criminal Justice, 2005.
J Roberts, C. Hutchison and R. Jesseman, 'Supervising conditional sentence orders: the perceptions of probation officers in Ontario.' (2005) Criminal Reports, 2005.
J Roberts, 'The fall and rise of the recidivist premium: recent developments in England and Wales.' (2005) Federal Sentencing Reporter, 2005.
J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'The state of the prisons: exploring public knowledge and opinion.' (2005) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 2005.
J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and Youth Justice' (2004) 2004 (31) Crime and Justice 495
ISBN: 0-226-80820-3
J Roberts and E. Erez, 'Communication in sentencing: exploring the expressive and the impact model of victim impact statements.' (2004) International Review of Victimology
J Roberts, 'Harmonizing the sentencing of young and adult offenders: a comparison of the Youth Criminal Justice Act and Part XXIII of the Criminal Code.' (2004) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice
J Roberts and A. von Hirsch, 'Legislating sentencing principles: the provisions of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 relating to sentencing purposes and the role of previous convictions.' [2004] Criminal Law Review
J Roberts and T. Gabor, 'Living in the shadow of prison: lessons from the Canadian experience in decarceration.' (2004) British Journal of Criminology
J Roberts and L. Stalans, 'Restorative justice and the sentencing process; exploring the views of the public.' (2004) Social Justice Research
J Roberts, 'An analysis of the statutory statement of the purposes and principles of sentencing in New Zealand.' (2003) Australia and New Zealand Journal of Criminology
J Roberts, 'Public opinion and mandatory sentences of imprisonment: a review of international findings.' (2003) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 2003.
J Roberts and T. Gabor, 'The Impact of Conditional Sentencing: Decarceration and Widening of the Net.' (2003) Canadian Criminal Law Review, 2003.
J Roberts and R. Melchers, 'The Incarceration of Aboriginal Offenders: an analysis of trends, 1978-2001.' (2003) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2003.
J Roberts, 'The pluses and minuses of custody: sentencing reform in England and Wales.' (2003) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice
J Roberts, 'The sentencing of Juveniles in Canada: An analysis of recent reform legislation.' (2003) Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice
J Roberts, H. Johnson and M. Grossman, 'Trends in crimes of sexual aggression in Canada: an analysis of police-reported and victimizations statistics.' (2003) International Journal of Comparative Criminology, 2003.
J Roberts and N. Bala, 'Understanding sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act.' (2003) Alberta Law Review
J Roberts, 'Victim impact statements and the sentencing process: enhancing communication in the courtroom.' (2003) Criminal Law Quarterly, 2003.
J Roberts and A. Edgar, 'Victim impact statements at sentencing: perceptions of the judiciary in Canada.' (2003) International Journal of Victimology
J Roberts, 'Alchemy in sentencing: an analysis of reform proposals in England and Wales.' (2002) Punishment and Society. The International Journal of Penology, 2002.
J Roberts, B. Fischer and M. Kirst, 'Compulsory drug treatment in Canada: a socio-legal history and examination of contemporary legal tools.' (2002) European Addiction Research, 2002.
J Roberts, 'Determining parole eligibility dates for life prisoners: lessons from jury hearings in Canada.' (2002) Punishment and Society. The International Journal of Penology, 2002.
J Roberts and S. Verdun-Jones, 'Directing traffic at the crossroads of criminal justice and mental health: implications of the Supreme Court judgment in R. v. Knoblauch.' (2002) Alberta Law Review, 2002.
J Roberts and J. Tufts, 'Sentencing Juvenile Offenders: Public Preferences and Judicial Practice.' (2002) Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2002.
J Roberts, 'The Evolution of Conditional Sentencing in Canada.' (2002) Criminal Reports, 2002.
J Roberts and P. Stenning, 'The Sentencing of Aboriginal Offenders.' (2002) Saskatchewan Law Review, 2002.
J Roberts, T. Gabor, K. Stein and L. Digiuilio, 'Unintentional firearms deaths:Can they be reduced by lowering gun ownership levels?' (2002) Canadian Journal of Public Health, 2002.
J Roberts and P. Stenning, 'Empty promises: parliament, the Supreme Court and the Sentencing of Aboriginal Offenders.' (2001) Saskatchewan Law Review, 2001.
J Roberts, 'L'evolution et consequences de la reforme de la sentence au Canada.' (2001) Sociologie et Societes, 2001.
J Roberts, 'Mandatory minimum sentences of imprisonment: Exploring the consequences for the sentencing process.' (2001) Osgoode Hall Law Journal, 2001.
J Roberts and R. Gebotys, 'Prisoners of Isolation: research on the effects of administrative segregation.' (2001) Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2001.
J Roberts and P. Healy, 'Recent Developments in Conditional Sentencing.' (2001) Canadian Bar Review, 2001.
J Roberts and A. Hastings, 'Sentencing in cases of hate-motivated crime: An analysis of the impact of sub-paragraph 718.2 of the Criminal Code.' (2001) Queen's Law Journal, 2001,
J Roberts, 'Sentencing scholarship and sentencing reform in Canada.' (2001) Mcgill Law Journal, 2001.
J Roberts and P. Healy, 'The Future of Conditional Sentencing.' (2001) Criminal Law Quarterly, 2001,

Chapter (106)

J Roberts and M Schwarze, 'Bridging the Gap between Artificial and Human Intelligence: Supplementing not Supplanting the Judge' in J Ryberg and J Roberts (eds), Principled Sentencing and Artificial Intelligence (New York: Oxford University Press 2021) (forthcoming)
J Ryberg and J Roberts, 'Sentencing and Artificial Intelligence: Setting the Stage' in J Ryberg and J Roberts (eds), Principled Sentencing and Artificial Intelligence (New York: Oxford University Press 2021) (forthcoming)
D Cole and J Roberts, ' Introducing Sentencing in Canada' in D Cole and J Roberts (eds), Sentencing in Canada: Essays in Law, Policy, and Practice (Toronto: Irwin Law 2020)
ISBN: 9781552215395
J Roberts and S Harrendorf, 'Criminal History Enhancements at Sentencing' in K Ambos et al (ed), Core Issues in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Volume 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108649742
ISBN: 9781108649742
J Roberts, 'Home Alone: The Conditional Sentence of Imprisonment in Canada' in JV Roberts and M Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada (Sixth Edition) (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2020)
ISBN: 9780176911065
J Roberts and A Reid, 'Indigenous Incarceration in Canada' in J Roberts and M Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada (Sixth Edition) (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2020)
ISBN: 9780176911065
K Ambos, A Duff, J Roberts and T Weigend, 'Introductory Remarks' in K Ambos et al (ed), Core Issues in Criminal Law and Criminal Justice: Volume 1 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2020)
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108649742
ISBN: 9781108649742
J Roberts and N Padfield, 'Sentencing in England and Wales' in K Ambos (ed), Strafzumessung/Sentencing: Angloamerikanische und deutsche Einblicke/Anglo-American and German Insights (Göttingen: Göttingen University Press 2020)
Sentencing in England and Wales has evolved greatly over the past 20 years. This essay explores the current state of sentencing in this jurisdiction and discusses the features which distinguish it from sentencing in other common law countries. The most important development – and the one which sets England and Wales apart – is the introduction of statutorily-based guidelines. The essay describes the origins and nature of the guidelines currently operating in this jurisdiction beginning with the historical context for the evolution of sentencing in England and Wales. The second part introduces the English sentencing guidelines by describing a typical of-fence-specific guideline. Robbery, a high-volume offence, is used as an example. The essay also discusses guidelines issued by the Council which apply across cases; for example, the Council has issued a guideline which provides guidance on the appropriate level of reduction that should be awarded to defendants who plead guilty.These ‘generic’guidelines are unique, found in no other sentencing guidelines regime. The essay concludes with some reflections on the issue of transparency at sentencing
J Roberts, 'The Purposes and Principles of Criminal Justice' in J Roberts and M Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada (Sixth Edition) (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2020)
ISBN: 9780176911065
J Roberts and L Harris, 'Sentencing Guidelines Outside the United States' in C Spohn and P Brennan (eds), Handbook on Sentencing Policies and Practices in the 21st Century. Corrections and Sentencing (New York: Routledge 2019)
ISBN: 9780429027765
A Hough and J Roberts, 'Public Opinion, Crime, and Criminal Justice' in S Maruna, A Liebling and L McAra (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (6th edn) (Oxford University Press 2018)
J Roberts, 'Aplicação estruturada da pena: lições da experiência na Inglaterra e no País de Gales' in Américo Bedê Jr. and Silveira de Queirós Campos, G (eds), Sentença criminal e aplicação da pena: ensaios sobre discricionariedade, individualização e proporcionalidade (Editora JusPodivm 2017)
J Roberts, 'Reduzindo o uso da prisão como pena: uma revisão das experiências internacionais recentes' in Américo Bedê Jr. and Silveira de Queirós Campos, G (eds), Sentença criminal e aplicação da pena: ensaios sobre discricionariedade, individualização e proporcionalidade (Editora JusPodivm 2017)
J Roberts and J De Keijser, 'Sentencing the Multiple Conviction Offender: Diminished Culpability for Related Criminal Conduct' in J V Roberts, J Ryberg and J De Keijser (eds), More than a Single Crime. Sentencing the Multiple Count Offender (Oxford University Press 2017)
J Roberts, J Ryberg and J De Keijser, 'Sentencing the Multiple Count Offender: Setting the Stage' in J V Roberts, J Ryberg and J De Keijser (eds), More than a Single Crime. Sentencing the Multiple Count Offender (Oxford University Press 2017)
A Ashworth and J Roberts, 'Sentencing. Theory, Policy, and Practice' in S Maruna, A Liebling and L McAra (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (6th edn) (Oxford University Press 2017)
J Roberts and A Ashworth, 'The Evolution of Sentencing Policy and Practice in England and Wales, 1996-2015' in M Tonry (ed), Sentencing Policies and Practices in Western Countries. Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives (Oxford University Press 2017)
J Roberts and M Plesničar, 'Odločanje o sankcijah, legitimnost in javno mnenje' in G Meško, K Eman and B Flander (eds), Oblast, legitimnost in družbeno nadzorstvo (Fakulteta za varnostne vede 2016)
J Roberts and L Harris, 'The Use of Imprisonment as a Sanction: Lessons from the Academy' in M Bosworth, C Hoyle and L Zedner (eds), The Changing Contours of Criminal Justice (Oxford University Press 2016)
J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'Empirical Sentencing Research: Options and Opportunities' in (ed), Exploring Sentencing Practice in England and Wales (Palgrave macMillan 2015)
J Roberts and Jose Pina Sanchez, 'Paying for the Past: The Role of Previous Convictions at Sentencing in the Crown Court' in (ed), Exploring Sentencing Practice in England and Wales (Palgrave MacMillan 2015)
Barry Mitchell and J Roberts, 'Sentencing for Murder Drawing Lessons from Research' in (ed), Exploring Sentencing Practice in England and Wales (Palgrave Macmillan. 2015)
J Roberts and Keir Rogers, 'Sentencing Practices and Trends in England and Wales, 1999-2013' in (ed), Exploring Sentencing Practice in England and Wales (Palgrave MacMillan 2015)
J Roberts and Hannah Maslen, 'After the Crime: Retributivism, Post-Offence Conduct and Penal Censure.' in A. Simester, U. Neumann and A. du Bois-Pedain (eds), Liberal Criminal Theory: Essays for Andreas von Hirsch (Hart Publishing. 2014)
J Roberts, 'Clarifying the Role of Public Opinion in Sentencing Policy and Practice' in J. Ryberg and J.V. Roberts (eds), Popular Punishment: The Normative Significance of Public Opinion for Sentencing Theory and Practice (Oxford University Press 2014)
ISBN: 978-0-19-994137-7
J. Ryberg and J Roberts, 'Popular Punishment: The Normative Significance of Public Opinion for Sentencing Theory and Practice' in J. Ryberg and J.V. Roberts (eds), Popular Punishment (Oxford University Press 2014)
J Roberts and Plesnicar, M, 'Sentencing, Penal Legitimacy and the Public' in G. Meszko and J. Tankebe (eds), Legitimacy and Criminal Justice in Europe (Springer 2014)
J Roberts, 'Exploring Sentencing Guidelines outside the United States' in (ed), Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (Springer 2013)
J Roberts, 'Mitigating and Aggravating Factors at Sentencing' in (ed), Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (Springer 2013)
J Roberts, 'Sentencing Patterns in England and Wales: Findings from the Crown Court Sentencing Survey. ' in A. Ashworth and J. Roberts (eds), Sentencing Guidelines: Exploring the English Model (University of Oxford. 2013)
Andrew Ashworth and J Roberts, 'The Origins and Evolution of Sentencing Guidelines in England and Wales.' in (ed), Sentencing Guidelines: Exploring the English Model (Oxford University Press 2013)
Hannah Maslen and J Roberts, 'The Role of Remorse at Sentencing: An Analysis of Guidelines and Empirical Practice' in A. Ashworth and J. Roberts (eds), Sentencing Guidelines: Exploring the English Model (University of Oxford. 2013)
Edna Erez and J Roberts, 'Victims and the Sentencing Process' in (ed), Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice (Springer 2013)
J Roberts and R. Hastings, 'Public Opinion and Crime Prevention' in D. Farrington and B. Welsh (eds), Oxford Handbook of Crime Prevention. (Oxford University Press 2012)
M. Hough and J Roberts, 'Public Opinion, Crime, and Criminal Justice' in R. Morgan and M. Maguire (eds), Oxford Handbook of Criminology. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012)
A. Ashworth and J Roberts, 'Sentencing. Theory, Policy, and Practice.' in R. Morgan and M. Maguire (eds), Oxford Handbook of Criminology. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2012)
J Roberts, 'The Role of the Victim at Sentencing and Corrections' in K. Reitz and J. Petersilia (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections (New York: Oxford University Press. 2012)
J Roberts and E. Erez, 'Victim Participation in the Criminal Justice System.' in R. Davis, A. Lurigio and S. Herman (eds), Victims of Crime. (Fourth Edition). (Beverly Hills: Sage. 2012)
J Roberts, 'Az ítélkezési rendszer alakítása Angliában és Walesben: Tanulságok Magyarország számára? (Sentencing Reform in Hungary: Lessons from England and Wales)' in (ed), Szemle, Number 2, OKRI. (Budapest: Hungarian Institute of Criminology. 2011)
J Roberts, 'Community Views of Sentencing: Intuitive and Principled Responses to Offending' in M. Tonry (ed), Punishment Futures. Studies in Penal Theory and Philosophy. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2011)
J Roberts and S. Wallace-Capretta, 'Electronic Monitoring and Community Custody in Canada. ' in R. Bas, K. Beyens, D. Kaminski and M. Nellis (eds), Electronically Monitored Punishment: Critical Perspectives (Cullompton: Willan Publishing. 2011)
J Roberts and M. Hough, 'Exploring Public Attitudes to Sentencing Factors in England and Wales.' in J.V. Roberts (ed), Mitigation and Aggravation at Sentencing. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011)
N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'Implementing Youth Justice Reform: Effects of the Youth Criminal Justice Act ' in J. Winterdyk and R. Smandych (eds), Youth Justice in Canada (Toronto: Oxford University Press 2011)
J Roberts, 'Introduction to Criminal Justice in Canada' in (ed), Criminal Justice in Canada (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Pearson 2011)
J Roberts, 'Jury Reviews of Parole Eligibility for Life Prisoners' in (ed), Criminal Justice in Canada (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Pearson. 2011)
J Roberts, M. Feilzer and M. Hough, 'Measuring Public Attitudes to Criminal Justice' in D. Gadd, S. Karstedt and S. Messner (eds), Handbook of Criminological Research Methods (London: Sage Publications. 2011)
J Roberts, 'Past and Present Crimes: The Role of Previous Convictions at Sentencing' in J. Ryberg and C. Tamburrini (eds), Recidivist Punishments: The Philosopher’s View. (New York: Taylor and Francis. 2011)
J Roberts, 'Public Perceptions of the Criminal Justice System in England and Wales. What does the Public Really think?' in S. Khan (ed), (Fabian Society 2011)
J Roberts, 'Punishing, More or Less: Exploring Mitigating and Aggravating Factors at Sentencing' in J.V. Roberts (ed), Mitigation and Aggravation at Sentencing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2011)
N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'The Changing Face of Youth Justice: Impact of the Youth Criminal Justice Act' in (ed), Criminal Justice in Canada (Fourth Edition) (Toronto: Pearson. 2011)
P.J. Carrington and J Roberts, 'The Last Chance Sanction in Youth Court: Exploring the Deferred Custody and Supervision Order' in S. Anand (ed), Paradoxes of Children’s Rights: Essays in Honour of Professor Nicholas Bala. (Toronto: Irwin Law. 2011)
J Roberts, 'Re-Examining First Offender Discounts at Sentencing.' in J.V. Roberts and A. Von Hirsch (eds), Previous Convictions at Sentencing: Theoretical and Applied Perspectives (Oxford: Hart Publishing. 2010)
N. Bala, P. Carrington and J Roberts, 'Youth Justice Reform in Canada: Reducing the Use of Courts and Custody without Increasing Youth Crime' in D. Smith (ed), A New Approach to Youth Justice (Cullompton: Willan Publishing. 2010)
J Roberts, 'The Role of the Victim at Sentencing and Corrections' in K Reitz and J Petersilia (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Sentencing and Corrections (Oxford University Press 2010)
J Roberts and E Erez, 'Victim Impact Statements at Sentencing: Expressive and Instrumental Purposes' in (ed), Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims, and the State (Willan Publishing 2010)
N Padfield and J Roberts, 'Victims and Parole: Probative or Prejudicial?' in (ed), Hearing the Victim: Adversarial Justice, Crime Victims, and the State (Willan Publishing 2010)
J Roberts and E. Erez, 'Communication in Sentencing: Exploring the Expressive and the Impact Model of Victim Impact Statements' in C. Hoyle (ed), Restorative Justice (London: Routledge 2009)
J Roberts, 'Elektronisch toezicht: van toezichttechnologie naar een autonome sanctie (Electronic Monitoring: from Surveillance Technology to Autonomous Sanction).' in T. Daems, T.S. De Decker, L. Robert, and F. Verbruggen (eds), Elektronische Toezicht (Leuven: Leuven University Press. 2009)
J Roberts, 'Explaining the Enduring Appeal of the Recidivist Sentencing Premium: The Role of Blameworthiness' in A. von Hirsch et al. (ed), Principled Sentencing. Readings on Theory and Policy. (Third edition) (Oxford: Hart Publishing 2009)
J Roberts, 'Listening to the Crime Victim: Evaluating Victim Input at Sentencing and Parole' in M Tonry (ed), Crime and Justice (volume 38) (University of Chicago Press 2009)
J Roberts, H. Johnson and M. Grossman, 'Trends in Crimes of Sexual Aggression in Canada' in J. Winterdyk, R. Reichel and H. Danmer (eds), A Guided Reader in Comparative Criminology and Criminal Justice. (Bochum: Brockmeyer 2009)
E. Erez and J Roberts, 'Victim Participation in the Criminal Process: Normative Dilemmas and Practical Solutions.' in S. Shoham, P. Knepper and P. Kett (eds), The International Handbook of Criminology. (London: Taylor and Francis 2009)
M Hough and J Roberts, 'Crime and Criminal Justice: Exploring the Policy Options for Britain' in D Halpern, V Uberoi, I McLean and A Coutts (eds), Policy Options for Britain (Palgrave Macmillan 2009)
J Roberts and J. Sprott, 'Exploring the Differences between Punitive and Moderate Penal Policies in the United States and Canada' in H. Kury and T. Ferdinand (eds), International Perspectives on Punitivity. Crime and Public Policy. Volume 4. (Bochum: Brockmeyer 2008)
J Roberts, 'Reducing the Use of Custody as a Sanction: A Review of Recent International Experiences' in M. Hough, R. Allen and E. Solomon (eds), Tackling Prison Overcrowding. Build More Prisons? Sentence Fewer Offenders? (Bristol: The Policy Press 2008)
J Roberts and E. Baker, 'Sentencing Structure and Reform in Common Law Jurisdictions.' in S. Shoham (ed), International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice. (Taylor and Francis. 2008)
J Roberts, J. Jacobson and M. Hough, 'Towards more Consistent and Predictable Sentencing in England and Wales' in M. Hough, R. Allen and E. Solomon (eds), Tackling Prison Overcrowding. Build More Prisons? Sentence Fewer Offenders? (Bristol: The Policy Press 2008)
J Roberts, 'The Role of public opinion in the development of sentencing policy and practice' in A Freiberg and K Gelb (eds), Penal Populism, Sentencing Councils and Sentencing Policy (Willan Publishing/Federation Press 2008)
M. Hough and J Roberts, 'Public Opinion, Crime, and Criminal Justice: The British Crime Survey and Beyond' in M. Hough and M. Maxfield (eds), Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies. Volume 22. (Cullompton: Willan Publishing and New York: Criminal Justice Press. 2007)
J Roberts and T. Gabor, 'Race and Crime: A Critique' in R. Brym (ed), Society in Question. (Toronto: Thomson Nelson. 2007)
J Roberts, 'Serving Time at Home: The Conditional Sentence of Imprisonment' in J.V. Roberts and M. Grossman (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada. A Reader. (Toronto: Thomson Nelson 2007)
E. Erez and J Roberts, 'Victims and the Criminal Justice System' in B. Cutler (ed), Encylopedia of Law and Psychology. (Beverly Hills: Sage 2007)
J Roberts and E Baker, 'Sentencing in Common Law Jurisdictions' in S Shoham, O Beck and M Kett (eds), International Handbook of Penology and Criminal Justice (Routledge 2007)
N. Bala and J Roberts, 'Canada’s Juvenile Justice System: Promoting Community-based Responses to Youth Crime' in J. Junger-Tas and S. Decker (eds), International Handbook of Juvenile Justice. (Dordrecht: Springer Publications. 2006)
T. Sanders and J Roberts, 'Exploring Public Attitudes to Conditional Sentencing' in J. Winterdyk, L. Coates and S. Brodie (eds), Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods (Toronto: Pearson 2006)
J Roberts and N. Bala, 'Juvenile Justice Reform in Canada.' in (ed), Handbook of International Juvenile Justice (Springer 2006)
J Roberts and E. Baker, 'Sentencing in Common Law Jurisdictions' in (ed), International Penology (De Sitter 2006)
J Roberts and E. Baker, 'Globalization and the New Punitiveness.' in (ed), The New Punitiveness: Current Trends, Theories and Perspectives (Willan Publishing 2005)
J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and the Administration of Justice: Research Findings across two decades.' in (ed), Public Opinion and the Administration of Justice (Politea 2005)
ISBN: 0032 (0) 2 289 26 10
J Roberts and T. Sanders, 'Exploring Public Attitudes to Conditional Sentencing' in (ed), Quantitative and Qualitative Research Methods. (Pearson 2004)
J Roberts and L. Stalans, 'Public Opinion and Criminal Justice' in (ed), Encyclopedia of Criminology (Fitzroy-Dearborn 2004)
J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and the Evolution of Juvenile Justice Policy in the Western world.' in (ed), Youth Crime and Youth Justice: Comparative and Cross-National Perspectives (University of Chicago Press 2004)
J Roberts and L. Stalans, 'Retribution' in (ed), Encyclopedia of Criminology (Fitzroy-Dearborn 2004)
J Roberts, 'The Future of Youth Court Sentencing in Canada' in (ed), Issues and Perspectives on Young Offenders (Thomson Nelson 2004)
J Roberts, 'An Introduction to Criminal Justice in Canada' in Roberts, Julian V. and Grossman, Michelle (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada : a Reader (Nelson Thomson Learning 2003)
J Roberts and Kent Roach, 'Restorative Justice in Canada: From Sentencing Circles to Sentencing Principles' in A. Von Hirsch, J.V. Roberts, A. Bottoms, K. Roach, K. and M. Schiff, M. (eds), Restorative and Criminal Justice (Hart Publishing 2003)
J Roberts, 'Serving Time in the Community: The Conditional Sentence of Imprisonment' in Roberts, Julian V. and Grossman, Michelle (eds), Criminal Justice in Canada : a Reader (Nelson Thomson Learning 2003)
J Roberts and M. Hough, 'Changing Attitudes to Punishment: The Context' in J.V. Roberts and M. Hough (eds), Changing Attitudes to Punishment. Public Opinion, Crime and Justice. (Cullompton: Willan Publishing. 2002)
J Roberts, 'Public Attitudes to Community-based Sanctions' in (ed), Changing Attitudes to Punishment (Willan Publishing 2002)
J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'Public Knowledge and Public Opinion of Sentencing' in (ed), Sentencing and Society: International Perspectives (Ashgate Publishing 2002)
J Roberts, 'Public Opinion and Sentencing Policy' in S. Rex and M. Tonry (eds), Reform and Punishment: the future of sentencing (Willan Publishing 2002)
ISBN: 1-903240-94-8
J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'English Believe Sentences Soft and Rising.' in (ed), Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Oxford University Press 2001)
J Roberts and Mike Hough, 'Public Opinion, Sentencing and Parole: International Trends' in (ed), Psychology in the Courts (University of Toronto Press. 2001)
J Roberts, 'Public Perceptions of Corrections' in (ed), Corrections in Canada (2001)
J Roberts, 'Race, crime and the collection of criminal justice statistics' in (ed), Crimes of Colour. Racialization and the Criminal Justice System (Broadview Press 2001)
J Roberts, 'Reforming Sentencing and Parole in Canada' in (ed), Penal Reform in Overcrowded Times (Oxford University Press 2001)
J Roberts, 'Sentencing, Law and Psychology' in (ed), An Introduction to Psychology and the Law (University of Toronto Press 2001)
J Roberts, 'Unearthing the Sphinx: the evolution of conditional sentencing' in (ed), Criminal law in Canada (Canadian Bar Review 2001)
J Roberts, 'The Coverage of Violent Crime in Toronto Newspapers.' in (ed), Report of the Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry. (Royal Commission on Violence in the Communications Industry. 1976)

Report (4)

J Roberts and M. Manikis, Victim Personal Statements at Sentencing: A Review of the Empirical Research. (London: Office of the Commissioner for Victims and Witnesses of England and Wales 2011)
B. Mitchell and J Roberts, Public Opinion and the Law of Murder (London: Nuffield Foundation 2010)
M. Hough, J Roberts, J. Jacobson, N. Steele, and N. Moon, Determining Crime Seriousness and the Custody Threshold: An Analysis of the Public’s View (London: Sentencing Advisory Panel 2009)
J Roberts and M. Hough, Public Opinion and the Jury: A Review of International Findings. (London: Ministry of Justice 2009)

Centres

Research programmes

Research projects

Research Interests

Sentencing policy and practice; public opinion, crime and criminal justice

Options taught

Criminology and Criminal Justice

Research projects