Catherine Redgwell is Chichele Professor of Public International Law and fellow of All Souls College, and Co-Director of the Sustainable Oceans Programme of the Oxford Martin School.

Her research interests fall broadly within the public international field, including international energy law and international environmental law. She has co-authored two leading texts on international environmental law, Birnie, Boyle and Redgwell, International Law & the Environment (OUP, 3rd edn, 2009; 4th edn forthcoming 2019) and Bowman, Davies and Redgwell, Lyster’s International Wildlife Law (CUP, 2nd edn, 2010). In the energy field she has published widely including as co-editor and contributing author on international energy law in Energy Law in Europe (OUP, 3rd edn, 2016). She is currently co-director of the Sustainble Oceans Programme funded by the Oxford Martin School (2016-2020) and by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation (2018-2020).

Catherine’s current affiliations include membership of the Academic Advisory Group of the Section on Energy, Environment, Natural Resources and Infrastructure Law of the International Bar Association. She is joint general editor of the British Yearbook of International Law and joint editor of the Oxford Monographs in International Law series (OUP), having previously served as joint general editor and chair of the editorial board of the International and Comparative Law Quarterly (2006-20012).

In Oxford, her teaching interests focus on public international law. She has taught on the International Law of the Sea and the Comparative and Global Environmental Law courses offered to BCL and MJur students, and has teaches public international law at the undergraduate level. She is currently supervising research students in the broad areas of international dispute settlement, human rights and humanitarian law, natural resources law, law of the sea, international investment law, immunity of international organisations, and regulation of cyber operations.

Before (re)joining the Oxford Faculty, she held the chair in Public International Law at University College London (2004-2013), having previously held the position of Reader in Public International Law and Yamani Fellow at St Peter’s College (1999-2003). She has also previously held positions at the Universities of Nottingham and Manchester. In 1992/93 she spent six months on secondment to the Legal Advisers, UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office.


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  • C Redgwell, Energy Law in Europe: National, EU and International Regulation (3rd edn Oxford University Press 2016)
    A fully updated, comprehensive review of the most important legal developments in all parts of the energy chain in the European Energy sector since the last edition, with new treatment of Poland amongst the nine key energy-producing jurisdictions •Analyses in detail the national, regional (EU) and international dimensions of energy law and policy, with separate chapters on international law affecting the energy sector and environmental law, the Energy Charter Treaty and EU regulation of the energy sector •Examines both the legal framework for the exploration and production of oil and gas, the gas and electricity sector, and the consequences of EC liberalization for these sectors, the (national) legal issues regarding the nuclear sector and the legal instruments promoting energy savings, efficiency and renewables within the framework of the Kyoto protocol •Written by a team of specialist academics and practitioners offering in-depth coverage of energy law, trade and regulation at national and international levels New to this edition •New commercially focused chapter on standard agreements in European Energy Trade •New chapter on EU External Relations in the energy sector, which serves to highlight increased cooperation in the energy field with key actors such as Russia, and to locate EU energy developments within a wider Euro-Mediterranean context •To reflect the increased emphasis on transborder cooperation, the book will include new sections in each national chapter focusing on bilateral and plurilateral cooperation within the EU context, complementing the treatment in the EU external relations chapter •New national survey chapter on Energy Law in Poland The energy sector in Europe has changed rapidly over the last few years under the influence of trends towards globalization, liberalization, competition, de-monopolization, and strengthening of regulation in the field. The new edition of this book builds on the success of the first in providing an updated overview of these important developments at both international and European levels, covering the most important principles of international law of relevance to the energy sector. A chapter dedicated to comparison of legal developments across Europe addresses the increasingly important question of whether we are heading towards an international energy market. New chapters on European Union External Energy Relations and Standard Agreements in European Energy Trade highlight growing cooperation in the energy field with major producers such as Russia, and the standards for trading energy in an integrated geographical market, including analysis of the product markets, as well as the relevant legal instruments and master agreements. The book also focuses on the implementation of the significant Energy Directives, and the constitutional and regulatory framework in the key energy-producing jurisdictions in the EU: Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. The national coverage emphasises trans-border collaboration by examining bilateral and multilateral cooperation within the context of the European Union. There is also updated analysis of developments in these countries in every energy sector, including oil, gas, nuclear energy, and in response to the Kyoto protocol, to renewables and emissions, with the extent of coverage determined by the resource base of each country. Readership: Practitioners and academics specializing in the energy sector (oil companies, utilities, government, law firms) in Europe and worldwide; international organisations; energy law students; reference libraries in the UK and worldwide.
  • C Redgwell and L. Rajamani, 'Energy Underground: What’s International Law Got To Do With It? ' in Donald N. Zillman, Aileen McHarg, Adrian Bradbrook and Lila Barrera-Hernandez (eds), (Oxford University Press 2014)
    This chapter examines the international law applicable to ‘energy underground’. It considers the extent to which existing treaty and customary law, as well as soft law, are adequate for the regulation of new subsurface energy activities. It shows that existing international law and institutions have largely addressed new subsurface activities involving new transformative technologies for using energy resources. However, there are heightened concerns regarding the environmental risks and social impacts of upstream unconventional hydrocarbon extraction activities, which are reflected in public opposition and in regulatory responses. Key international regulatory gaps also remain for some aspects of energy underground, most notably with respect to the current issues regarding; firstly, transboundary movement of carbon dioxide; secondly, the seemingly intractable inter-generational issue of the long-term storage of nuclear waste and liability; and, finally, the legal status and use of shared oil and gas reservoirs.
  • C Redgwell, 'International Environmental Law' in M. Evans (ed), International Law (Oxford University Press 2014)
    Evans' International Law provides wide-ranging analysis of all the key issues and themes in public international law and brings together an outstanding collection of interesting and diverse writings from the leading scholars in the field. The fourth edition succeeds both in explaining the principles of international law and exposing the debates and challenges that underlie it. Now fully revised and updated, it continues to provide an authoritative and stimulating overview of this increasingly important subject; revealing international law in its full diversity.
  • S Rayner, C Heyward, T Kruger, T Kruger, J Savulescu and C Redgwell and others, 'The Oxford Principles ' (2013) Volume 121, Issue 3 Climatic Change 499
    Scientific momentum is increasing behind efforts to develop geoengineering options, but it is widely acknowledged that the challenges of geoengineering are as much political and social as they are technical. Legislators are looking for guidance on the governance of geoengineering research and possible deployment. The Oxford Principles are five high-level principles for geoengineering governance. This article explains their intended function and the core societal values which they attempt to capture. Finally, it proposes a framework for their implementation in a flexible governance architecture through the formulation of technology-specific research protocols. • This article is part of a special issue on “Geoengineering Research and its Limitations” edited by Robert Wood, Stephen Gardiner, and Lauren Hartzell-Nichols.
  • C Redgwell, 'The Wrong Trousers: State Responsibility and International Environmental Law ' in M. Evans and P. Koutrakos (eds), The International Responsibility of the European Union – European and International Perspectives (Hart Publishing 2013)
    How is the international responsibility of the European Union determined? In the context of the multilayered and ever evolving Union legal order, the Lisbon Treaty has introduced considerable changes to the Union's participation in international affairs. These have rendered this thorny question an even more pressing concern not only for the European Union and its Member States but also for third countries and international organisations. Based on papers delivered at the bi-annual EU/International Law Forum organised by the University of Bristol in May 2011, this volume brings together EU and international law experts to address the various questions raised by the Union's international responsibility. It discusses horizontal issues, such as the concept of responsibility of international organisations in the evolving international legal order and the different techniques available for determining responsibility. It also focuses on specific policy areas (trade, investment, environment, security and defence, human rights) by approaching them from both an EU and international law perspective.
  • M Lee, C Armeni, J de Cendra, S Chaytor, S Lock, M Maslin, Y and C Redgwell and others, '‘Public Participation and Climate Change Infrastructure ' (2013) 25 (1) Oxford Journals Journal of Environmental Law 33
    This article explores the space for public participation during the consenting process for a nationally significant wind energy or carbon capture and storage infrastructure project. Legal obligations to provide opportunities for public involvement in these processes can be found in national, EU and international law. However, an examination of strategic planning policy suggests that in practice, very little will be up for discussion at this stage. This is consistent with a certain mistrust of the public in high-level policy discourse on the technological change thought necessary for climate change mitigation. Legally entrenched rights to participate, coupled with limited opportunities to influence, create the danger that participation becomes a simple bureaucratic hurdle, frustrating for all concerned.
  • C Redgwell, 'Contractual and Treaty Arrangements Supporting Large European Transboundary Pipeline Projects: Can Adequate Human Rights and Environmental Protection Be Secured? ' in M. Roggenkamp, L. Barrera-Hernandez, D. Zillman and I. del Guayo (eds), Energy Networks and the Law: Innovative Solutions in Changing Markets (Oxford University Press 2012)
    This book investigates the challenges that face governments engaged in this renewal, particularly since in many cases these networks are, by necessity, international. The construction of new networks always involves the application of planning and environmental laws, and the complications these pose only increase as networks pass through the territory of several different countries. This book analyzes the evolution of this area from several angles, both geographical and legal. The authors combine knowledge and expertise from a variety of sources and backgrounds to present an invaluable overview of the regulatory developments and perspectives that shape the legal frameworks in which governments develop these networks, and the way in which account must be taken of new sources of energy by law-makers.
  • C Redgwell, 'International Legal Responses to the Challenges of a Lower Carbon Future: Energy Law for the Twenty-First Century ' in D Farrall, T Ahmed and D French (eds), Criminological and Legal Consequences of Climate Change (Hart Publishing 2012)
    This edited collection, the result of an international seminar held at the International Institute for the Sociology of Law, Oñati, Spain in 2010, explores the potential legal and criminological consequences of climate change, both domestically and for the international community. A novel feature of the book is the consideration given to the potential synergies between the two disciplinary foci, thus to encourage among legal scholars and criminologists not only an analysis of the consequences of climate change from these perspectives but to bring these fields together to provide a unique, inter-disciplinary exploration of the ways in which climate change does, or could, impact on our societies. Such an inter-disciplinary approach is necessary given that climate change is a multifaceted phenomenon and one which is intimately linked across disciplines. To study this topic from the point of view of a single social science discipline restricts our understanding of the societal consequences of climate change. It is hoped that this edited collection will identify emerging areas of concern, illuminate areas for further research and, most of all, encourage future academic discussion on this most critical of issues.
  • C Redgwell, 'Facilitation of Compliance ' in J Brunnee, M Doelle and L Rajamani (eds), Promoting Compliance in an Evolving Climate Regime (Cambridge University Press 2011)
    As the contours of a post-2012 climate regime begin to emerge, compliance issues will require increasing attention. This volume considers the questions that the trends in the climate negotiations raise for the regime's compliance system. It reviews the main features of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Kyoto Protocol, canvasses the literature on compliance theory and examines the broader experience with compliance mechanisms in other international environmental regimes. Against this backdrop, contributors examine the central elements of the existing compliance system, the practice of the Kyoto compliance procedure to date and the main compliance challenges encountered by key groups of states such as OECD countries, economies in transition and developing countries. These assessments anchor examinations of the strengths and weaknesses of the existing compliance tools and of the emerging, decentralized, 'bottom-up' approach introduced by the 2009 Copenhagen Accord and pursued by the 2010 Cancun Agreements.
  • C Redgwell, 'Geoengineering the Climate: Technological Solutions to Mitigation Failure or Continuing Carbon Addiction?' (2011) Vol. 5 Issue 2 Carbon and Climate Law Review 178
    This article considers the complex and controversial issue of climate geoengineering, examining the international legal framework for regulating large-scale interventions in the Earth's natural climate system to offset emissions and to avoid catastrophic climate change. It uses the injection of sulphate aerosols into the stratosphere and ocean iron fertilization as examples. It sets out the fragmented nature of the international legal framework which might regulate geoengineering, and the contours of any possible future legal response. The article concludes that the emergence at the international level of a single treaty dedicated to the regulation of all geoengineering methods is both unlikely and undesirable, favouring instead an approach based on a number of guiding principles for the governance of geoengineering research which are briefly elaborated. It suggests these could be applied against the backdrop of a general prohibition on deployment pending the fuller development of appropriate governance frameworks for specific geoengineering methods.
  • C Redgwell, M. Bowman and P. Davies, Lyster's International Wildlife Law (2nd edn Cambridge University Press 2010)
    The development of international wildlife law has been one of the most significant exercises in international law-making during the last fifty years. This second edition of Lyster's International Wildlife Law coincides with both the UN Year of Biological Diversity and the twenty-fifth anniversary of Simon Lyster's first edition. The risk of wildlife depletion and species extinction has become even greater since the 1980s. This new edition provides a clear and authoritative analysis of the key treaties which regulate the conservation of wildlife and habitat protection, and of the mechanisms available to make them work. The original text has also been significantly expanded to include analysis of the philosophical and welfare considerations underpinning wildlife protection, the cross-cutting themes of wildlife and trade, and the impact of climate change and other anthropogenic interferences with species and habitat. Lyster's International Wildlife Law is an indispensable reference work for scholars, practitioners and policy-makers alike.
  • C Redgwell, 'Property Law Sources and Analogies in International Law ' in A McHarg, B Barton, (ed), Property and the Law in Energy and Natural Resources (Oxford University Press 2010)
    The law of energy and natural resources has always had a strong focus on property as one of its components, but there are relatively few comparative, book-length, treatments of both property law and energy and natural resources law. The aim of this edited collection is to explore the multiple dimensions of the contemporary relationship between property and energy and natural resources law. Its genesis was the growing resurgence of global interest in questions of property in energy and resources and how it manifests itself across legal regimes around the world. With an international and comparative character, the collection seeks to capture differences in the meaning of property, and the different views about the role it should play in a diverse range of contexts: civil law and common law; the law of indigenous communities; public law and private law; and national and international law. Key issues discussed include private rights and common property situations, privatization and regulation, competition for land use and resources, the role of property rights in environmental protection, and the balance between national sovereignty and the security of foreign investment. The collection thus has relevance for a wide readership interested in the legal dimensions of property as an increasingly important aspect of the law for energy and resources across diverse countries, and at the international level. The contributors are established experts in the energy and natural resources law field, and the collection builds upon a body of previous collaborative work in this area.
  • C Redgwell, Patricia Birnie and Alan Boyle, International Law and the Environment (3rd edn Oxford University Press 2009)
    Coverage that provides a thorough grounding in the underlying principles with the added benefit of incisive criticism and commentary •Clear introductions and conclusions to chapters ensure students are guided through the subject and focus on the key issues •With detailed endnotes and a thorough bibliography the book offers a platform to a wealth of references to wider academic sources for advanced study and research New to this edition •Increased coverage of Genetically Modified Organisms and biotechnology •Extended analysis of ethics and the environment •New material on the International Maritime Organisation and Non Governmental Organisations •Increased use of sub-headings and summaries As conservation of the environment plays an increasingly important role within society, International Law and the Environment continues to be the essential read for students and practitioners alike.
  • C Redgwell, 'Article 2: Definition of Natural Heritage' in (ed), The 1972 World Heritage Convention: A Commentary (Oxford University Press 2008)
    ISBN: 978-0-19-929169-4

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Research Interests

Public international law, international environmental law, international energy law, treaty law

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Public International Law

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